行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第8號

洋蔥新品種之育成

張明聰 施銀行 余合

摘  要

洋蔥的育種工作在本省鮮有人著手進行,至目前為止有關洋蔥栽培的品種,均自國外引種,因此洋蔥的育種工作,實有待加強的必要,本場一向注重洋蔥的育種改良,茲將歷年來育種的結果,摘錄於下:

1.育成之新品種及其育種方法:

a.雜交育種:自民國47年開始著手,作Red Creole, Early grano及San Joaquin三品種間的雜交組合,至民國58年育成南改系1號和南改系2號。

b.系統分離育種:自民國48年開始著手,作Red Creole, Early grano, San Joaquin, Early lockyer Brown之系統分離,至民國58年育成南改系6號。

c.一代雜交育種:在民國51年由早玉(Early grano)中找得雄性不稔A-pne由此並檢定出B-pne, B-26系統(此係Early lockyer Brown之後代分離系統),並用Jones法,將含有雄性不稔的因子以回交法導入B-26中,使成一優良母本,並已回交二次,供一代雜交採種用。

2.南改系六號係一早生品種,黃皮,鱗球豐扁,耐貯藏,栽培此品種時最需注意其最適播種期(9月上旬∼10月上旬)及生育中期(定植後50日內)前一定要充足灌水,則將來生產出的鱗球整齊,且大球多,豐產,適於早期外銷及內銷貯藏用。

3.南改系一號和南改系二號,係中生種,植株形態似早玉,但前者之鱗球黃皮,扁球形,後者為紅皮品種,鱗球較多,辣味強,栽培法同一般品種。

4.新育成品種均適於本省南部和東部地區種植及採種,採種量每10公畝可採種子60∼100磅,但種球種植前須選中球以上經低溫5∼10℃處理二個月。

5.該三種新品種經貯藏試驗結果,可貯藏4∼5個月之久,這對內銷之市場調節,遠景看好,尤其南改系6號的收穫期比早玉提早半個月之久,對早期外銷為極有望的品種。


The New-Bred Varieties of Onion in Tainan

M. T. Chang, Y. H. Shy, H. Yu

Summary

       There are so few people to study the breeding of onion in Taiwan and the cultivated varieties were all introduced from other countries. So, to study the breeding of onion must strengthen now. In Tainan District Agricultural Improvement Station (DAIS) we always pay attention to study the breeding and improvement of onion, the then, it is concluded that recent achievement as follows:

1.New-bred varieties and the breeding methods:

A. Hybridization breeding:

Using the three varieties: Red Creole, Early grano and San Joaquin as parents. The breeding program had been begun in 1958, and then the new-bred varieties T I-1 and T I-2 were obtained in 1969.

B. Pedigree method: (Line selection)

Using Red Creole, early grano, San Joaquin and early lockyer brown for systematic segregation materials. It was beginning in 1959. Then the variety of T I-6 was obtained in 1969.

C. Hybridization breeding of F1:

The male sterility A-line was found in early grano in 1962. Then the series of B-line, B-26, (It was selected from early lockyer brown) was inspected from A-line. As H. A Jones method, a good female parent (A-line) was obtained by introducing the gene of male sterility into B-26 with back cross. Twice back cross had been held for F1 hybrid seed production.

2.   T I-6 is a kind of early maturing variety, which scales are in yellow color, bulbs are fullness and in flat figure and storage tolerance. If the variety cultivates in optimum sawing duration (from the beginning of September to the beginning of October) and irrigates enough in mid-growing duration (after transplanting 50 days), there will produce big and similar bulbs and high yield and suit to store for domestic consumption or prior export.

3.   T. I-1 and T. I-2 are medium maturing varieties. The plants of them are similar to early grano.  The former which bulbs are flat and the scales are in yellow color.  But the bulbs of later one are smaller than the former, it’s scales are in red color and with strong hot-taste. The cultivation methods are as well as the common varieties.

4.   The new-bred varieties are good for growing the seed production in southern and eastern area of Taiwan. The quality of seed production was 60~100 pounds per 0.1 ha.  But the bulbs must be treated under 5~10℃ for 2 months before planting.

5.    According to storage experiment, the three varieties could resistant 4~5 months. It means the varieties are prepared with good future in marketing adjustment for domestic consumptions.  Especially, the harvest time of T. I-6 is about half a month earlier than early grano. In other word, T. I-6 is a variety which prepares very good conditions for prior export. 



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