行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場   研究彙報第68號

 

雲嘉南農村社區人力活化運用之分析

李郁淳、戴肇鋒

摘  要

李郁淳、戴肇鋒。2016。雲嘉南農村社區人力活化運用之分析。臺南區農業改良場研究彙報68:89-113。

臺灣農業季節性缺工問題日益嚴重,各鄉鎮區農會自103年起,籌組農事服務團活化農村人力。本研究自103年起進行為期二年之調查,第一年以問卷調查方式探討雲嘉南地區果樹及蔬菜產業季節性農業勞動力不足問題,以可機械化程度低、種植面積最大或產值最高者之次產業做指標,了解人力需求現況;第二年主要調查雲嘉南地區各農會執行農村農產業人力活化情形,以雇主、受雇人員及農會主辦人員三方為調查對象。103年調查結果顯示果樹產業方面,芒果、鳳梨、文旦分別在5月、11月、8月最需套袋、種植及採收人力;蔬菜產業方面,結球萵苣、小果番茄、蘆筍在10月至翌年2月、12月至翌年1月、4月∼5月最需定植、採收及除草人力;104年度三方問卷結果顯示,農忙期雇主招募臨時工的主要管道,以找熟人幫忙為主,請農會協助調度人手次之,對臨時工來源並無國籍限制;受雇人員偏好工作與居住地同鄉鎮,參與農事服務團後,平均日薪由944元增加至1,008元;農會媒合成功率在八成以上,深受雇主與受雇人員肯定其在農業人力調度之貢獻。約有八成的雇主與受雇人員願意繼續參與農會之人力媒合及教育訓練,並期望政府未來以補助受雇人員保險為最重要。三方受訪者對於引進農業外勞之意見,雇主意願較受雇人員及農會人員為高。本研究建議農業人力活化方向宜朝向勞雇雙方的實際需求,充實農業技術實務培訓,並藉由在地農會建立橋樑與協調角色。

現有技術:以傳統僱工方式或藉由勞動部促進就業相關措施鼓勵國人從事農業工作,解決現有農業缺工問題。

創新內容:以問卷調查法分析雲嘉南地區農村人力需求職能、時節、區域性、需求類型以及需求量等人力供需資料,並了解基層對聘僱農業外勞議題之意向。

對產業影響:建構雲嘉南地區農村人力供需資料庫之參考,做為未來設置農村勞動力調度平台之建議基礎。

關鍵字:人力供需與媒合、農業勞動力、季節性缺工
接受日期:2016年8月25日


Analytics and Counseling of Human Resource in Rural Community in Southwest Taiwan

Lee, Y. C. and C. F. Tai 

Abstract

Agricultural labor shortage has become an increasingly serious problem in Taiwan. Seasonal labor shortage in particular lays great impact on agricultural industry regarding the practical needs of regional agricultural operations management. Many farmers’ associations among towns, villages and districts in Taiwan have established agricultural service corps to promote activation of rural labor market since 2014. The present study conducted a two-year questionnaire survey. During the first year we examined the labor demands focusing on agricultural subsectors with lowest level of mechanization, maximal crop cultivation area or production value by investigating seasonal labor shortage for growing and harvesting fruit trees and vegetables. During the second year we examined the rural agricultural labor utilization approaches of farmers’ associations among towns, villages and districts in southwest Taiwan by surveying agricultural employers, employees, and the responsible officers of farmers’ associations. Then based on survey results, we analyzed the current agricultural labor demand in southwest Taiwan and the strategies used for labor activation and management. The survey results in 2014 showed a labor shortage of manpower and skill demand in fruit tree and vegetable sectors, including the maximal demands for bagging of mango fruits in May, harvesting pomelos in August, planting pineapples in November, transplanting head lettuce from October to February, harvesting cherry tomato from December to January, week control and asparagus harvesting from April to May. The survey results in 2015 were summarized as follows: During farming seasons, the employers hired mainly friends or relatives as temporary workers, followed by calling assistance from farmers’ association for manpower deployment. No restrictions were placed on hiring employees regarding area or nationality. The employees preferred working and living in the same town or village for convenience. The employees with training experience in agricultural service corps had a slight increase of average daily wage from NTD 944 to NTD 1,008. The success rate of matching employers and employees via farmers’ associations was above 80%, indicating that the farmers’ associations have earned recognition of the employers and employees for their role and service quality in seasonal labor scheduling solutions. In conclusion, about 80% of the responding employers and employees expressed willingness to continue participating in the human resources matching and educational training activities held by the farmers’ associations, and they expected that the government will provide insurance subsidies to improve the safety of farm workers. In addition, the employers, employees and farmers’ associations had different opinions on the policies of importing foreign agricultural workers advocated by the government. The employers showed greater acceptance of importing foreign workers than the local employees and farmers’ associations. It is recommended that the relevant authorities develop labor activation strategies catering to the practical needs of agricultural employers and employees, such as providing trainings of practical farming skills, as well as make good use of the negotiation role of farmers’ associations that serves as a bridge of communication.

What is already known on this subject?
Agricultural labor shortage can partly solved by traditional labor hiring method or through the assistance of labor ministry to encourage people to work on farms.

What are the new findings?
We use a questionnaire for the survey and analysis of farm labor shortage in different kinds of works, different reasons, and different districts as well as the quantity they need. The problems and intention for hiring foreign farm labors can also be understand.

What is the expected impact on this field?
The information can be used as a data-base for a platform to supply farm labors or to be used as a reference
to hire foreign farm labors.

Key words: Manpower, Agriculture labor, Seasonal labor-shortage
Accepted for publication: August 25, 2016


    回研究彙報目錄