行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場   研究彙報第67號

 

空心菜栽培合理化施肥技術之研究

林經偉

摘  要

林經偉。2016。空心菜栽培合理化施肥技術之研究。臺南區農業改良場研究彙報 67:38-48。

本研究之目的為探討設施栽培內以農民慣行施肥、推薦施肥與合理化施肥管理對土壤性質、空心菜生育、植體養分吸收之影響,以提供為設施栽培空心菜之合理施肥與土壤管理參考。2012 年於雲林縣西螺鎮簡易溫室中栽種空心菜竹葉種,連續進行8期作之空心菜栽種。調查結果顯示,農民慣行施肥處理區土壤有較高之鹽類累積,且夏季高溫期,其電導度(EC值)較冬季低溫期提升較多,顯示高溫期之肥料施用量高於空心菜之生育需求,且因農民慣行施肥處理多採高氮肥施用,其植體硝酸根離子含量也呈現較高趨勢,顯示增加氮肥之施用量,植體中硝酸根離子濃度及氮含量亦會隨之增加。在低溫期慣行施肥處理之平均株高及單位面積產量均較合理施肥及推薦量施肥處理高,顯示低溫期生育較緩慢,若增加氮肥之施用量確實可促進植株之生長速度及提高產量。農民慣用之施肥量約較合理施肥處理增加43.08%,在低溫季節可使空心菜產量增產約4.92%,然高溫季節反而減產達6.49%,此外各期作調查資料顯示合理化施肥處理之氮肥因子效率均高於推薦施肥處理及農民慣行處理。因此依照土壤肥力條件,氣候變化及植株生育表現進行施肥管理調整之合理施肥是有效率之施肥方式,可生產高品質健康優質之葉菜,且可維持土壤永續利用,避免劣化。

現有技術:在不同之氣候條件會影響養分的效率,各田區土壤肥力也有差異,推薦一定施肥量(N-P2O5-K2O(kg/ha)= 151-120-114)應用於所有栽培,無法達的合理施肥的目標。

創新內容:調查簡易溫室空心菜週年生產模式,評估不同氣候變化、土壤肥力及作物生長狀況,以調整肥料施用,達到合理施肥的目標。

對產業影響:冬季提高氮肥施用量以增加產量,夏季合理化施肥可增產6.49%,降低生產成本,提高產量,增加收益。

關鍵字:空心菜、肥料效率、氮肥
接受日期:2015 年11月26日


Studies on the Reasonable Application of Fertilizers for the Cultivation of Ipomoea Aquatica

Lin, C. W.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different fertilizer treatments on the soil properties and the quality of Ipomoea aquatica at a simple plastic greenhouse in 2012. There were three treatments of fertilizer applications, which were farmers conventional method (overdose amount of fertilizer application), recommended application and reasonable application of fertilizer. The results could be a reference of fertilizer application and soil management for greenhouse vegetable production. The cultivation of Ipomoea aquatic was conducted 8-planting continuous cultivation in a simple greenhouse located at Xiluo Township, Yunlin County in 2012. Data collection included yield and quality of vegetable, changes of soil properties before and after planting, cost of fertilizer and evaluation of N-fertilizer efficiency. The result showed high accumulation of salts in the area of famers conventional method and the soil EC value is much higher in higher-temperature period (summer) than in lower-temperature period. The comparison of the results are as the following the application amount of higher N-fertilizers by farmers’ conventional method was higher than growth demand of Ipomoea aquatic and the nitrate (NO3-) content in vivo of Ipomoea aquatic was higher than other treatments. In lower-temperature growth season, average plant height and yield of Ipomoea
aquatic were better in farmers’conventional method than in recommended and reasonable fertilizer application. It revealed that promotion of plant growth and increase of plant yield could be related to increase of N-fertilizer application in slower growth rate (lower-temperature) of period. The dosage of fertilizers in farmers’ conventional method was 43.08% higher than in reasonable fertilizer application. The vegetable yield of farmers’ conventional method was 4.92% higher in winter, but 6.49% lower in summer compared to reasonable fertilizer application. The partial factor productivity of applied nutrient in reasonable application method was higher than farmers conventional and recommended application methods. This study suggested that the appropriate fertilizer management was based on the soil fertility, climate condition and growth demand of vegetables and the result of the study could improve the utilization efficiency in keeping the yield and quality of vegetables, maintaining sustainable use of soil and preventing soil degradation.

What is already known on this subject?
The climate condition will affect the utilization efficiency of fertilizer. There are different fertility of soil in all fields. Fixed recommended application of fertilizer (N-P2O5-K2O (kg/ha) = 151-120-114) could not suit with all fields.

What are the new findings?
To evaluate the mode of annual production of Ipomoea aquatica at a simple plastic greenhouse. The appropriate fertilizer management was based on the soil fertility, climate condition and growth demand of vegetables and it could improve the utilization efficiency in keeping the yield and quality of vegetables.

What is the expected impact on this field?
Increase of plant yield could be related to increase of N-fertilizer application in winter. The yield of reasonable fertilizer application increase 6.49% in summer. It will help to reduce production and fertilizer costs, improve the yield and quality of vegetable and thus, farmer’s profit is increased.

Key words: Ipomoea aquatica, Efficiency of fertilizer, Nitrogen Fertilizer
Accepted for publication: November 26, 2015


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