行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場   研究彙報第66號

 

氮肥施用量對水稻莖稈生育的影響

陳榮坤、陳宗禮

摘  要

  陳榮坤、陳宗禮。2015。氮肥施用量對水稻莖稈生育的影響。臺南區農業改良場研究彙報66:24-38。

本研究為探討不同氮肥施用量(60、120、180 kg ha-1)對水稻莖稈生長與發育的影響,以水稻品種臺農71號與臺稉9號為試驗材料,於2007及2008年的一、二期作,進行兩年四期作的田間試驗,根據兩年四期作的試驗結果顯示,水稻株高、伸長節間長度、上位五葉之葉鞘長度、葉位與穗位高度以及穗軸抽出程度均隨著氮肥施用量增加顯著提高,其中上位節間及葉鞘長度皆比下位節長,尤其以穗軸節間伸長最大。然而隨著氮肥施用量愈高,葉鞘對伸長節間的包覆程度愈低,主要原因為節間伸長對於氮肥反應的敏感度高於葉鞘所致。葉鞘對伸長節間的包覆程度主要受期作、品種及氮肥施用量的影響,二期作葉鞘長度較一期作長,導致二期作葉鞘對節間的包覆程度明顯較一期作高,但相反地導致二期作具有較短的穗軸抽出度。本研究證實氮肥施用量顯著改變莖桿生長速率,其結果將改變植冠結構與抗倒伏特性。

現有技術:目前針對溫帶型稉稻在氣象環境迥異的栽培期作下,有關氮肥用量對莖稈細微發育之影響的相關研究較少。

創新內容:本研究分析氮肥施用量、氣象環境與莖稈生長的關係,其結果可用於調整水稻植冠結構與改善抗倒伏特性。

對產業影響:藉由水稻莖稈生育隨著品種、氮肥施用量與氣象條件不同而產生的形態發育差異,提供育種選拔、氮肥管理及株型調控的參考依據。

關鍵字:水稻、莖稈、形態特性、氮肥施用量
接受日期:2015年9月29日


Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Rates on the Culm Development of Rice

Chen, R. K. and C. L. Chen

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer application rates (60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1) on culm development of two rice cultivars TNG71 and TK9 grown in the first and second crop seasons during 2007 and 2008. The two years data across four cropping seasons revealed that culm growth characters such as plant height, length of elongated internodes, length of top five leaf sheath, vertical height of leaf blade and panicle, and panicle exertion above leaf sheath were significantly increased with the increase of application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Top parts of internode and leaf sheath were longer than lower parts especially for panicle axil internode. However, elongated internode coverage rate by relative leaf sheath decreased significantly with the increase in nitrogen levels owing to the growth of internode response to nitrogen was more sensitive than leaf sheath. Degrees of leaf sheath coverage were affected by crop seasons, cultivars and nitrogen application rates. Leaf sheath coverage rate in second crop season was higher than the first crop season attribute to the total leaf sheath length was longer in the second crop season, and reversely resulted in shorter panicle exsertion. This study indicated that responses of stem growth rate were significantly affected by nitrogen doses and subsequently would change the structure of canopy and lodging resistance.

What is already known on this subject?
Currently, there are lack of detail responses of stem growth to different nitrogen supply under diverse cropping seasons in temperate japonica rice.

What are the new findings?
This research revealed the relationship among nitrogen levels, crop seasons and stem growth of rice. The results can be used to adjust canopy structure and improve lodging resistance.

What is the expected impact on this field?
Understanding the process of stem development under different culture conditions would provide valuable information for nitrogen management, canopy adjustment, and breeding selection.

Key words: Rice, Stem, Morphological traits, Nitrogen fertilizer application rate
Accepted for publication: September 29, 2015


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