行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場   研究彙報第64號

 

外銷結球萵苣緩釋型肥料應用效率之研究

謝明憲、江汶錦

摘  要

  謝明憲、江汶錦。2014。外銷結球萵苣緩釋型肥料應用效率之研究。臺南區農業改良場研究彙報。64:20-35。

  本研究目的為協助外銷結球萵苣生產紓解田間工短缺問題,評估應用緩釋型肥料僅一次施肥取代傳統多次追肥以降低人力支出之效益。試驗設計分為(1)冬作緩釋型肥料合理量施用評估、(2)春作緩釋型肥料合理量施用評估及不同緩釋型肥料比較試驗及(3)夏作緩釋型肥料施用評估及不同氮源組成肥料比較試驗等三項。試驗結果顯示冬作應用緩釋型肥料較農民傳統施肥法之氮磷鉀三要素分別約減少51.6%-46.9%-37.9%施用量,且有顯著提升葉球重之效果。在春作不論應用本土或進口緩釋型肥料,皆較農民傳統施肥法有顯著提升葉球重之效果,且應用本土緩釋型肥料較農民傳統施肥法之氮磷二要素分別約減少25.6%-4.7%施用量,惟推估應用本土緩釋型肥成本仍偏高,肥料支出費用較農民傳統施肥約近1倍。在夏作應用不含硝態氮緩釋型肥料之葉球重顯著高於不論是否含硝態氮之慣行施用肥料處理者,而單位葉面積重量僅顯著高於不含硝態氮慣行施用肥料處理,但顯著低於含硝態氮慣行施用肥料處理。結球萵苣應用緩釋型肥料有顯著提升產量及降低肥料施用量之效果,且具有免除栽培期間雇用工人進行追肥之效益,但緩釋型肥料價格偏高仍是其缺點,且冬作及春作應用緩釋型肥料均有造成土壤EC值升高現象,應進一步試驗評估尋求再降低緩釋型肥料合理用量,以期提升臺灣外銷結球萵苣生產之國際競爭力。

關鍵詞:結球萵苣、緩釋型肥料、產量
接受日期:2014年10月18日


Application of Controlled Released Fertilizers for Iceberg Lettuce Cultivation

Hsieh M. H. and W. J. Jiang

Abstract

   The purpose of this project was to reduce the impact of labor shortage in iceberg lettuce production for exportation by using controlled released fertilizers. We expected that the fertilization would be reduced from three or four applications to one application during period of iceberg lettuce cultivation. The principal methods include (1) evaluating the efficacy of the controlled released fertilizers through calculated application in winter, (2) estimating the cost and efficacy of the different controlled released fertilizers through the calculated application in spring, and (3) investigating the influence of different types of nitrogen fertilizer on head quality in summer. Results showed that the treatment of controlled released fertilizer through calculated application had significantly increased the head weight and reduced the fertilizer consumption by approximately 51.6%-46.9%-37.9% with N-P2O5-K2O in winter cultivation. In spring cultivation, the treatments of two different brands of controlled released fertilizers also had significantly increased the head weight and reduced the fertilizer consumption by approximately 25.6%-4.7% with N-P2O5. However, the least possible cost of locally produced controlled released fertilizers approximately doubles that of traditional common fertilizers. In summer cultivation, the treatment of controlled released fertilizer without nitrate nitrogen also had significantly increased the head weight compared to a traditional fertilizing treatment that contained nitrate nitrogen and one that did not. In the treatment of controlled released fertilizer without nitrate nitrogen, the leaf weight was significantly higher than the traditional fertilizing treatment without nitrate nitrogen, but significantly less than the traditional fertilizing treatment with nitrate nitrogen. This research had proven that the application of the controlled released fertilizers increased yield as well as soil EC, and decreased the fertilizer consumption. However, the higher cost of the controlled released fertilizers was still the main issue. In the future, the controlled released fertilizers through accurate application should be evaluated more to study whether fertilizer consumption can be reduce more or not. Using increased controlled released fertilizers use can be realized in iceberg lettuce cultivation for exportation and increase the competitiveness of the export vegetable industry.

Key words:Iceberg Lettuce, Controlled Released Fertilizers, Yield
Accepted for publication:October 18, 2014


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