行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場   研究彙報第64號

 

節水栽培對水稻產量及品質之影響

呂奇峰、羅正宗

摘  要

  呂奇峰、羅正宗。2014。節水栽培對水稻產量及品質之影響。臺南區農業改良場研究彙報64:10-19。

  本試驗主要探討不同節水灌溉模式對水稻臺南11號產量及品質之影響,並期望能建立臺南11號的節水栽培模式,以達節省水田灌溉水並維持稻作穩定生產及品質之目的。試驗結果顯示,2011年第一期作節水模式一(灌溉7天停灌3天)較慣行灌溉處理約減產8.4 %,節水模式二(灌溉10天停灌5天)則減產最多(約17.8 %),兩節水模式減產的主要原因為顯著降低臺南11號每叢穗數。另外2011年第一期作之兩節水模式在白米味度值、糙米食味品質及外觀方面,均與慣行灌溉處理無顯著差異。2012年第一期作進一步調整節水模式為乾濕交替式水稻栽培方式 (Alternative wetting and drying rice cultivation),期望能增加水稻生育期間之有效分蘗數,以達增產及節省灌溉用水之功效。2012年第一期作試驗結果顯示,兩節水模式對產量及產量構成因素均與慣行栽培無顯著差異。在米質方面,僅完整米率因節水灌溉而顯著降低外,其它如白米味度值、糙米外觀及食味品質也均無顯著差異。綜合以上試驗結果發現,2012年節水模式二(水稻插秧存活後即進行節水灌溉,待土表下5 cm之土壤水分張力開始呈現負值時,行2 cm淺水灌溉,直到齊穗期後,再以土表下15 cm處之土壤水分張力達到-20 kPa為灌溉起始點之灌溉方式)最具穩定稻作生產及節省水田灌溉用水之試驗目標。

關鍵字:水稻、節水栽培、產量與品質
接受日期:2014年10月17日


Effects of Water-saving Irrigation Regime on Rice Production and Grain Quality

Lu, C. F. and J. C. Lo

Abstract

   This study aims to establish a cultivation model with water-saving irrigation regime (WSI) based on stable production and grain quality in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Tainan 11). The results showed that the yield from conventional cultivation is significant higher than either from WSI-I (irrigated 7d then drainage 3d) or WSI-II (irrigated 10d then drainage 5d) in 2011. Both yield of WSI-I and WSI-II are 8.4% lower and 17.8% lower than conventional cultivation main caused by less panicle numbers. However, the eating quality and grain appearance have no significant difference among three different cultivation models. In 2012, we modified the irrigation system to the alternative wetting and drying cultivation model to maintain active tiller numbers under water-saving regime. The WSI-III is provided 2 cm depth irrigation when tension meter reading underground 5 cm is negative and the WSI-IV is following the WSI-III until synchronized heading then re-supply water when tension meter reading underground 15 cm is -20 kPa. The results showed both yield and rice quality from WSI-III and WSI-IV have no significant difference than conventional cultivation except of less head rice ratio. In conclusion, we established a useful irrigation regime not only to save irrigation water but also to maintain rice production and grain quality in Taiwan.

Key words: Rice, Water-saving Irrigation, Yield and Quality
Accepted for publication: October 17, 2014


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