行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場   研究彙報第61號

 

不同的寡聚糖處理對洋香瓜瓜類退綠黃化病毒病發生之影響

彭瑞菊、黃秀雯、蔡翰沅、鄭安秀

摘  要

  彭瑞菊、黃秀雯、蔡翰沅、鄭安秀。2013。不同的寡聚糖處理對洋香瓜瓜類退綠黃化病毒病發生之研究。臺南區農業改良場研究彙報 61:50-59。

  臺南區為瓜類主要的栽培區,2011年洋香瓜栽培面積達2,584公頃,佔臺灣栽培面積的81.2%。2009年證實引起洋香瓜植株黃化症狀為由銀葉粉蝨媒介傳播的瓜類退綠黃化病毒,可危害許多重要的經濟作物,造成植株的葉片呈現黃色斑點、退綠黃化、甚至白化的病徵,導致收成量降低、品質不佳,引起嚴重的經濟損失。此病毒潛伏期很長,苗期或生育初期罹病後,至生育中期或後期在老葉上才出現黃化病徵。本研究分別於露天隧道內及溫室中,自洋香瓜定植後即開始以不同的寡聚糖處理洋香瓜,隧道內對照組於定植後第三週老葉就開始呈現黃化病徵,以Hsp70h及CP之專一性引子對檢測確認,証實已受瓜類退綠黃化病毒危害,而殼寡糖處理的在定植後第四週才開始呈現黃化病徵,而寡聚半乳糖醛酸處理者遲至定植後第五週才出現,溫室亦遲至第五週才開始呈現黃化病徵,隧道式栽培至收成時,對照未處理、殼寡糖處理、寡聚半乳糖醛酸處理罹病毒率依序分別為54.6%,32.9%及32.1%;溫室中分別為82%,36%及34%。收成後作果實品質分析,三處理間植株葉片及果肉均檢測到病毒的罹病果實僅糖度有些許差異,而無罹病株的健康果實,不論是果重、果肉厚度、果實大小及糖度均有明顯的差異,平均果重相差約120-740公克,糖度約相差1o~2.6 o Brix。本研究顯示寡聚糖可以誘導植物體產生抗性,而且還有刺激生長的作用。對於瓜類退綠黃化病毒,除了在防治上務必加強瓜類育苗期及定植初期銀葉粉蝨的防治,杜絕此病毒侵害的機會,另外亦可在種植初期即施用寡聚糖,不僅可刺激生長亦可誘導抗性,增加產量與提升品質。

關鍵詞:瓜類退綠黃化病毒、寡聚糖、銀葉粉蝨
接受日期:2013年 3 月 18 日


Effects of Different Oligosaccharide Treatment on the Occurrence
of Cucurbit Chlorotic Yellows Virus Disease on Melon

Peng, J. C., H. W. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, and A. S. Cheng

Abstract

   Cucurbits are one of the main economic crops in Tainan area. Muskmelon cultivation occupied cropping area of 2,584 hectares, account for 81.2% of the total cultivated area in Taiwan. In 2009, yellowing symptoms were observed on muskmelon and confirmed to be caused by Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV), which was transmitted by whitefly. This virus infect several important crops worldwide, causing symptoms of interveinal chlorosis, yellowing and brittleness of leaves accompanied by yield losses. The long latent period of the virus started the infection on seedling stage but showed yellowing symptoms in old leaves on middle or late growth stage. This study used different oligosaccharides treatment in the tunnel-type and greenhouse cultivation muskmelon field. In the third week after planting, the plants began to show yellowing symptoms on old leaves in tunnel-type cultivation muskmelon field. The specific primers for Hsp70h and CP were used to confirmed this symptoms caused by CCYV. It began to show yellowing symptoms in the fourth week after planting when treated by Chitooligosaccharides and in the fifth week when treated by oligomeric galacturonic acid . The plant showed yellowing symptoms in the greenhouse cultivation muskmelon field as late as the fifth week. The control untreated, chitooligosaccharides processed and Oligogalacturonic acid treatment were infected with CCYV for 54.6%, 32.9% and 32.1%, respectively, in the tunnel-type cultivation muskmelon field. In greenhouse cultivation muskmelon field CCYV infected rates were 82%, 36% and 34%, respectively. The quality analysis of the fruits showed that only Brix is slight different between the three treatments on virus infected fruit. But for health fruits the fruit weight, flesh thickness, fruit size and Brix were significantly different, the average fruit weight was about 120-740 grams and sweet was about 1~ 2.6 Brix. This study showed that oligosaccharides can induce plant resistance and stimulate growth. Therefore it is important to control the whitefly population on early growth stage of the muskmelon plants to prevent CCYV infected. Alternatively, treatment by oligosaccharides on planted on early stage can stimulate growth, induced resistance for virus disease, increase production and fruit quality.

Key word: Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus ( CCYV); Oligosaccharides; Whitefly
Accepted for publication: 18 March , 2013


    回研究彙報目錄