行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場   研究彙報第60號

 

農業長期生態系對作物生產力及土壤肥力的影響

王瑞章、孫文章、江汶錦、林晉卿、黃山內

摘  要

  王瑞章、孫文章、江汶錦、林晉卿、黃山內。2012。農業長期生態系對作物生產力及土壤肥力的影響。臺南區農業改良場研究彙報 60:48- 67。

  為瞭解台灣幾種不同耕作制度對農業生態系生產力維持機制及其對環境品質之影響,本研究於臺南區農改場雲林分場試驗田探討不同期作,不同耕作制度下的作物品質與產量及土壤性質的變化,並維護此試驗平台供各計畫研究。試驗結果無論雙期作水田、水旱輪作與旱田連作田,皆顯示永續農耕中合理的減少肥料投入,已可提供作物生長所需養分及控制病蟲害之發生,並維持相當於傳統農耕的產量。96年至100年二期作,高投入之慣行農耕(conventional agro-ecosystem;CA)與低投入之永續農耕(sustainable agro-ecosystem;SA)處理間產量變化不明顯,田間產量變異性以旱作連作區較為明顯,若經水旱輪作及水田連作則大幅降低。在輪作系統中,花生採收後莖稈翻耕土壤腐熟後,易導致於氮肥過量助長稻熱病發生。土壤肥力分析結果顯示,兩種耕作系統高投入(CA)處理區土壤有效鉀均顯著高於低投入(SA)處理。而兩期旱田輪作區改成雙期水稻輪作後,與98年一期植前相比,兩處理表土中有效鉀均大幅降低。

關鍵詞:長期生態研究、耕作制度、農業生態系、土壤肥力
接受日期:2012年12月27日


Effect of Agricultural Long Term Ecosystem on Productivity of Crops and Soil Fertility

Wang, R. C., W. C. Sun, W. J. Jing , C. C. Lin and S. N. Huang

Abstract

  In order to understand the effect of different cropping systems in Taiwan on the agro-ecosystem, on the mechanism of productivity maintenance, and on the quality of environment, experiment field were setup at the Yin-Lin Branch Station of Tainan DARES to explore to effect of different cropping season and different cropping system on the yield and quality of crops as well as the change of soil properties, the test field was also used as a platform for different studies . Results indicated that all the cropping system of double rices, one rice and one dryland crop, and continuous dryland crops, their crop yield under sustainable condition were equal to the yield of conventional ones , the reasonable use of fertilizers were sufficient to the growth of crop and for pest control. Form 2007-2011, no yield difference was observed in double rice between conventional agro-ecosystem (CA) and sustainable agro-ecosystem (SA) cropping systems. However, big difference was observed in the continuous dryland cropping system. Double rice and one rice, one dryland cropping systems can decrease the differences. In the crop rotation system, after the peanut recovery in the cane ploughing soil, easy to cause the nitrogenous fertilizer excessively encourages rice blast to occur. Results of the soil fertility analysis indicated that the exchangeable K of CA was higher than that of SA. If the continuous dryland crop changed to double rice, the exchangeable K in the soil can be reduced.

Keywords: Long Term Ecological Research, Cropping System, Agricultural Ecosystem, Soil Fertility
Accepted for publication :December 27, 2012


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