行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場   研究彙報第59號

 

小果番茄肥液滴灌管理研究

謝明憲、劉依昌、許涵鈞、江汶錦、鍾瑞永

摘  要

  謝明憲、許涵鈞、劉依昌、江汶錦、鍾瑞永。2010。小果番茄肥液滴灌管理研究。臺南區農業改良場研究彙報59:45-53。

  本計畫之目的為利用養液滴灌設備,開發設施蔬果自動化肥灌管理,達到節水及提升肥料利用效率,以並降低生產管理成本,提升設施番茄果實品質及穩定產量。試驗以番茄為材料,利用設施栽培,進行土壤水分含量、養液施用量及摘除果實(果串)下方老葉處理,評估對果實品質及產量之影響;結果顯示小果番茄臺南24號在秋冬作栽培,10%土壤含水量處理之裂果率顯著低於30%者,果實可溶性固形物含量顯著高於30%者。10%土壤含水量處理之用水量僅為30%者之一半;摘除果實下方之老葉在果實可溶性固形物含量顯著高於對照組;在80%及100%施肥量處理之果實可溶性固形物含量顯著高於施肥量為0及20%者,而且裂果率、酸度及單株產量則顯著低於施肥量為0及20%者。土壤肥力分析則顯示施肥量80%及100%處理之有效磷含量與種植前相近,0、20%、40%、80%及100%等施肥量處理之有效鉀含量均顯著低於種植前之未處理者。本研究藉由土壤水分監測及自動給水控制器設備,可以維持穩定的土壤水分含量及肥灌施肥量,達成小果番茄精準化之水分及施肥管理目標,穩定秋冬季小果番茄生產之果實平均可溶性固形物含量達10.0OBrix及降低裂果率。本計畫建立自動化灌溉管理系統可達成降低設施果菜生產風險及管理成本,且具容易操作優點,有助提升蔬菜產業競爭力。

關鍵字:番茄、肥料、滴灌、設施栽培
接受日期:2012年5月1日


Study on Drip Fertigation Used in Greenhouse Cherry Tomato Production

Hsien, M. H, E. C. Liu, H. C., Hsu, W. J. Jiang and J. Y. Chung

Abstract

   The purpose of this project was to develop an automatic fertigation procedure which enhances water and fertilizer efficiencies of tomato cultivation in the greenhouse by using fertigation equipment. In this study, Tainan No. 24 cherry tomato plants were cultivated in a greenhouse. The effect of different soil moisture contents, different fertilizer amounts and defoliation on the fruit quality and yield were evaluated. The results showed a reduction of the fruit cracking rate and an increase of total soluble solids at 10% soil moisture content compared to 30%. Furthermore, the total soluble solids were increased by removing the old leaves under the fruit cluster. Based on a fertilizing rate of 1 g of fertilizer per plant per week as 100%, according to the analysis of soil fertility, the phosphorus content of soil at 80% and 100% fertilization was similar to the pre-cultivation level. The potassium content of the soil at 0, 20%, 40%, 80% and 100% fertilization was lower than that of the pre-cultivation level. Soil moisture sensors and mini weather stations were used to monitor and control the rates of dripped irrigation water and fertilizer. In addition, controlling the soil moisture content and the amount of fertilizer could produce a high quality fruit (10 0Brix) and a low fruit cracking rate for greenhouse cherry tomato cultivation in the autumn and winter. This automatic fertigation system could be used to reduce the risk of fruit cracking loss and production cost, make growing high quality tomatoes in the greenhouse simpler and improve competitiveness.

Key words: Drip Irrigation, Fertilizers, Greenhouse and Tomato
Accepted for publication: May 1, 2012


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