行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場   研究彙報第59號

 

臺灣地區水稻品種植冠截光率及光能利用效率之育種效應評估

羅正宗

摘  要

  羅正宗。2012。臺灣地區水稻品種植冠截光率及光能利用效率之育種效應評估。臺南區農業改良場研究彙報59:26-35。

  本試驗自臺灣地區1936~1995年育成水稻品種逢機選取25個為參試材料,探討於不同氮肥施用量處理環境下(0、90、180 kg N ha-1),不同育種年代水稻品種之植冠截光率及光能利用效率的表現,並以各品種之截光率值及光能利用效率值,對其育成年度估算直線回歸,藉以探討不同育種年代間水稻植冠截光率(Light interception, LI)及稻穀產量之光能利用效率(Radiation use efficiency of grain yield, RUEy)之育種效應。試驗結果顯示抽穗前植冠平均截光率之品種間變異較抽穗後及全生育期為高,此種現象在不同氮肥施用量下均有類似的結果。1936~1995年育成品種隨育種年代之進展水稻全生育時期植冠截光率呈直線的遞減,顯示老品種具有較高的植冠截光率。這種現象在邁入重肥密植栽培制度後之1962~1995年間,亦呈相同反應,只有1984~1995年來進入提高品質之育種年代後,水稻品種之植冠截光量不再隨育種年代之進展而直線遞減,顯示過去水稻育種年代中,針對植冠截光能力之選拔呈現負的效應。就臺灣過去水稻育種進程中RUEy之實際的育種效應,顯示臺灣地區水稻之RUEy值隨育種年代之演進而呈直線的增加,唯此種關係在不施氮肥的環境下則不易顯現出來。

關鍵詞:水稻、植冠、截光能力、光能利用效率、育種效應
接受日期:2012年5月1日


Breeding Effects of the Light Interception and Radiation Use Efficiency
of the Rice Varieties Released in Taiwan

J. C. Lo

Abstract

   A total of 25 varieties randomly selected from the collection of rice varieties released in Taiwan during the 1936~1995 year were used to conducted field experiments with different nitrogen application rates (0、90、180 kg N ha-1) to investigate the breeding effects of the mean light interception (MLI) and radiation use efficiency (RUEy) of the rice canopy. The result shows that the MLI value of rice canopy from transplanting to heading (MLIT-H) were significantly different than from heading to maturity (MLIH-M) and full growth period (MLIT-M) among the test varieties. When grown with no nitrogen fertilizer or with 180 kg nitrogen per hectare, the MLI of the test varieties showed a clear decreasing trend over the varieties were released during the 1936~1995 year. In other words, the older varieties showed higher MLI but not higher light interception efficiency (LIE), i.e., the ratio of MLI to LAI (leaf area index). The varieties released in recent years showed higher RUEy when were fertilized with more nitrogen. But, the reverse was true for the old varieties. In general, the test varieties showed an increasing time trend of RUEy in respect to their breeding era. This trend was absent when these varieties were grown with no nitrogen fertilizer.

Key words: Rice, Canopy, Light Intercepted, Radiation Use Efficiency, Breeding Effect
Accepted for publication: May 1, 2012


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