行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第48號
 

文心蘭切花生產水耕栽培技術之開發

陳燿煌 、 王裕權 、 張元聰 、 王仕賢

摘  要

陳燿煌、王裕權、張元聰、王仕賢。 2006。文心蘭切花生產水耕栽培技術之開發。台南區農業改良場研究彙報 48:35-46。

  本試驗擬開發文心蘭水耕栽培技術以生產切花,利用水耕栽培方式的優點,如生長快速、植株高大、根系發達且收穫期提前等,以彌補文心蘭生育特性上的缺陷,如生長緩慢、葉片數少、根數少、營養生長期長且須很長的栽培始能開花等。以文心蘭切花品種南西( Oncidium Gower Ramsey “黃金二號”)分生苗為材料,組培苗出瓶後於2寸盆中經過約七個月育苗,已經具有兩個假球莖,少數並已另長出一個新芽。試驗對照1(CK1)為例行盆缽介質栽培,對照2(CK2)為例行盆缽介質栽培加液肥滴灌,試驗處理1(T1)採用滴灌方式進行水耕栽培並配合老球莖修剪,處理2(T2)僅採用滴灌方式進行水耕栽培,但老球莖則放任生長不予修剪,比較此四者對芽體生長、切花產量及切花品質之影響。試驗首先確立七條規則用以建立文心蘭芽體的命名系統,並利用於本試驗芽體的調查。試驗結果顯示,滴灌水耕處理種植後生長較快,萌發的芽體數目及芽體種類較多,假球莖較大,進而花期提前,試驗期間(93年5月28日至95年1月9日)共有三次花期收穫,包括94年1-2月,5-6月和8-10月等三次正式大量開花,對照組直到94年7月才正式大量開花。試驗期間全部切花產量CK1為43支(A級品比例44.2%)、CK2為66支(A級品比例48.5%)、T1為40支(A級品比例47.5%)、T2為73支(A級品比例46.6%)。開花品質調查顯示,包括瓶插壽命、切花品質等級、花梗長、分叉數、花朵數及花苞數等,滴灌水耕栽培3處理CK2、T1及T2與例行盆缽介質栽培的對照CK1表現皆類似。

關鍵詞: 文心蘭、切花、水耕栽培、芽體命名、南西<


Development of Hydroponic Culture Technique for Cut Flower Production of Oncidium

Chen, Y. H., Y. C. Wang, Y. T. Chang and S. S. Wang

Summary

  This experiment was aimed on the development of hydroponic culture technique for cut flower production of Oncidium . The traditional potted culture with routing substrate composition and routing water and fertilizer supply, was as the first check (CK1). The plant of the second check (CK2) was planted in the same pot and the same substrate composition, but was dripped with liquid solution same as the hydroponic culture. The plant of the first treatment (T1) was raised by hydroponic culture. Beside the bulb on which the cut flower was harvested, all the other bulbs on the T1 plant were removed. The plant of the second treatment (T2) was also raised by hydroponic culture, but no any bulb was removed. At first, this paper was reported a nomenclature system for Oncidium buds. We can recognize each bud on Oncidium plant with this system. The result of this experiment was showed that the plant with hydroponic culture growed vigorously. Bud numbers of CK2, T1 and T2 was more than that of CK1 and Buld size was also bigger. The earlier flowering date of CK2, T1 and T2 were observed. For CK2, T1 and T2, there were three major harvesting seasons in January to February, May to June and August to October in 2005. For CK1, there was only one harvesting season until July in 2005. Total numbers of the cut flower harvested was 43 for CK1, 66 for CK2, 40 for T1 and 73 for T2. The traits with regards to the cut flower quality, including quality grade, vase life, stalk length, spikelet numbers, flower numbers and flower bud numbers were all no significantly different among CK2, T1, T2 and CK1.

Keywords: Oncidium , cut flower, hydroponic culture, bud nomenclature, Gower Ramsey



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