行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第48號
 

番茄黃化捲葉病毒田間監測及銀葉粉蝨傳毒試驗

彭瑞菊、陳昇寬

摘  要

彭瑞菊、陳昇寬。2006。 番茄黃化捲葉病毒田間監測及銀葉粉蝨傳毒試驗。台南區農業改良場研究彙報 48:9-15。

  番茄捲葉病毒病由 Tomato leaf curl virus(TLCV) 或 Tomato yellow leaf curl virus(TYLCV)所引起,是番茄主要病害之一,感染病毒後引起葉片黃化及捲曲等病徵,所造成之經濟損失可高達百分之百,番茄捲葉病毒病只經由一種媒介昆蟲即銀葉粉蝨( Bemisia argentifolii )傳播。番茄捲葉病毒病發生率越高銀葉粉蝨密度亦有增加的趨勢。利用聚合?連鎖反應來偵測番茄捲葉病毒,包括番茄及銀葉粉蝨的帶毒情形,比較網室栽培與露天栽培之差異及番茄罹病與銀葉粉蝨傳毒的相關性。冬作番茄至收成前調查,網室內罹病度為0.1%,銀葉粉蝨帶毒率為10%,銀葉粉蝨密度為89.2隻/每張;田間罹病度為42%,銀葉粉蝨帶毒率為100%,銀葉粉蝨密度為68隻/每張。由於氣候較寒冷,所以網室內的蟲口數反而較高,不過因為是番茄生長後期,番茄植株健壯,所以網室內的罹病度並沒有隨之增高。春作番茄種植後至六月初調查,網室內罹病度為65%,銀葉粉蝨帶毒率為70%,銀葉粉蝨密度為303.3隻/每張;田間罹病度為22%,銀葉粉蝨帶毒率為50%,銀葉粉蝨密度為591隻/每張。網室內若是蟲口密度高,三個星期後就可陸續看到罹病株,且隨著蟲口密度增高罹病株數隨之增高。不同生長時期之番茄植株,分別接種不同隻帶黃化捲葉病毒之銀葉粉蝨,以PCR檢測植株罹病及觀察發病情形。不論生長期為何,5隻銀葉粉蝨傳毒率均在70%以下,10隻以上才能達到近90%以上的傳毒率,而再20天及40天番茄生育期,植株罹病及病徵表現有一致性,而植株生育期60天,病徵表現低於罹病率。

關鍵詞: 番茄黃化捲葉病毒、銀葉粉蝨、 聚合酶連鎖反應


Monitoring of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in the Field and the Transmission of Virus by Whitefly

Peng, J. C. and S. K. Chen

Summary

  Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a serious disease in tomato field, causing symptoms of leaf yellowing, leaf-curling, and severe reduction of Tomato yield. The TYLCV is a whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses. We try to study the relationship between infection rate and whitefly transmission. The DNA fragments from whiteflies and tomato leaves could be amplified by polymerase chain reaction to detect the infection rate. In winter crops in the green house, t he infection rate of plants was 0.1 % , and the infection of whitefly was 10 % , the insect population density was 89.2 individual on a stick-paper. In the field, t he infection rate was 42.2 % on plants, and 100 % of whiteflies were infected, the insect population was 68 individual on a stick-paper. In the green house the temperature was cooler and the insect number increased, but infection rate was not increased in tomato plant. In spring crops in the green house, t he infection rate of plants was 65 % , the 70 % of whiteflies were infected, the insect population density was 303.3 individual on a stick-paper. I n the field, t he infection rate was 22 % on plants and 50 % of whiteflies were infected , the insect population density was 591 individual on a stick-paper. The insect population density increased and the virus infected plants were observed after three weeks. The TYLCV injured were seriously in the field than in the green house. The infection rate of TYLCV is positively related to the population of silver leaf whitefly ( Bemisia argentifolii). Different tomato growth periods were used to test the transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus by whitefly. Plants of 40 days were transmitted easily than that of 20 days. It seems that plants at 60 days or older are resistant to infection or transmission of the virus.

Keywords: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV); Whitefly ; Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)


 

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