本試驗在三處不同土系之土壤進行牛、雞、豬糞等禽畜糞堆肥對水稻、甘藍、落花生及盤固牧草等作物之肥效評估，旨在探討各類禽畜糞堆肥連續施用對各種作物之肥效值(fertilizer value)及其適當施用量，藉供禽畜排泄物堆肥化處理及利用之參考。試驗結果顯示，禽畜糞堆肥之肥料效應及其最高施用量因土壤條件及作物種類之不同而異。禽畜糞堆肥對水稻之相對氮肥效率以雞糞堆肥最高為0.37，亦即雞糞堆肥氮素每公斤相當於化學肥料氮素0.37公斤之肥效，豬糞堆肥為0.32，牛糞堆肥之相對氮肥效率亦可達0.34。對甘藍之相對氮肥效率，以豬糞堆肥最高為0.37、雞糞堆肥次之為0.29，牛糞堆肥之肥效值最低為0.25。對落花生之相對氮肥效率，牛糞堆肥為0.21、雞糞堆肥為0.11，豬糞堆肥為0.19。對盤固牧草之相對氮肥效率，雞糞堆肥高達0.81，牛糞堆肥為0.66，豬糞堆肥則為0.59。各禽畜糞堆肥對不同作物之最高施用量可以曲線迴歸估算，水稻在義竹試地為牛糞堆肥65ton/ha、雞糞堆肥16ton/ha、豬糞堆肥12ton/ha；在斗南試地則為牛糞堆肥61ton/ha、雞糞堆肥14ton/ha、豬糞堆肥11ton/ha。甘藍為牛糞堆肥44ton/ha、雞糞堆肥25ton/ha、豬糞堆肥21ton/ha。落花生為牛糞堆肥4.5ton/ha、雞糞堆肥2.9ton/ha、豬糞堆肥2.7ton/ha；而Pangola牧草為牛糞堆肥87ton/ha/year、雞糞堆肥46 ton/ha/year、豬糞堆肥45 ton/ha/year。
Evaluation of the Fertilizer Value of Animal Waste Composts
Lin, T. T.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the fertilizer value of animal waste composts to different crops under long-term application and different soil conditions. Field experiments were conducted at Tou-nan and Yi-chu branch station of Tainan DAIS , and TLRI in Shin-hua,Tainan, with the soil series of Sn3, Cf5 and Tn3, respectively. Total nitrogen contents of these animal waste composts were 1.81%(cow waste compost ), 2.46%(chicken waste compost) and 2.82%(pig waste compost). Two application rates of waste compost (1.5- and 3-fold of N recommendation rate) were applied as basal application to compare with chemical fertilizer and control plots. The N recommendation rate of chemical fertilizer plots were 160, 240, 40 kg N/ha for rice, cabbage, peanut and 400 kg N/ha /year for forage crop (pangola grass), respectively.
The results of this experiment showed that the fertilizer values of these animal waste composts were different from the kind of waste composts, crops and soil properties. The relative N efficiency (fertilizer value) of animal waste composts to rice were 0.34, 0.37and 0.32 for cow waste compost, chicken waste compost and pig waste compost ,respectively . The fertilizer value of waste composts to cabbage was 0.25 for cow waste compost, 0.29 for chicken waste compost and 0.37 for pig waste compost. The fertilizer values of waste composts to peanut were 0.21 for cow waste compost, 0.11 for chicken waste compost and 0.19 for pig waste compost. The fertilizer values of waste composts to forage crop (pangola grass) were 0.66 for cow waste compost, 0.81 for chicken waste compost and 0.59 for pig waste compost.
The maximum application rates (loading capacity) of animal waste compost were estimated by curvilinear regression. The estimated maximum application rates of cow waste compost were 65, 44, 4.5 and 87 ton/ha for rice, cabbage, peanut and pongola grass, respectively. The estimated rates of chicken waste compost were16, 25, 2.9, 46 ton/ha , and 12, 21, 2.7, 45 ton/ha of pig waste compost for these crops.
Keyword: Animal waste compost, Fertilizer value, Crop
Accepted for publication: 11 October, 2002