行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第33號
 

浸水及天然災害對大豆生長與產量的影響

連大進 黃明得 吳振碩

摘  要

連大進、黃明得、吳振碩.1996.浸水及天然災害對大豆生長與產量的影響。台南區農業改良場研究彙報33:45~56。

本省大豆栽培易受天然災害為害,致產量及品質常受影響,急須尋求防範之道,本試驗旨在探討天然災害及浸水對大豆生育及產量損失之影響。經研究及調查結果,台南地區81年夏作天然災害計有颱風3次,82年春作後期發生梅雨為害2次,此等災害造成大豆植株折枝、倒伏、豆莢腐敗、以及產量損失,夏作減產7.3∼13.5%,春作子實黃熟期及成熟期遭害各減產18.5%或81.5%。高屏地區天然災害計有夏作雷陣雨,秋作落山風及春作暴風雨及冰雹為害,此等災害造成大豆落葉、落莢、倒伏及減產,減產率達38.4%∼100%。大豆於播種期浸水處理,以播種當天之出土率受害最為嚴重,受害率達79.2∼92.5%,而且受害率以大粒種及深覆土較高。在生殖生長期浸水處理試驗,連續浸水3天,對大豆的生育、品質及產量均有不良影響,其程度視大豆生育階段不同而異,其中對豆莢及豆粒腐敗、倒伏率、黃葉數增加及豆粒紫斑受浸水影響最為明顯。產量以後期的影響為較大,台南地區在R7及R8期浸水造成大豆減產12.5∼35%。

關鍵詞:大豆、浸水、天然災害、產量損失

接受日期:1996年4月11日


 

Surveys on Natural Disasters in Soybean and Yield Loss Caused by Flooding

Lien, T. J., M. T. Huang and C. S. Wu

Summary

Preventing of yield and quality losses of soybean from natural disasters are needed.  For understanding the occurrences of natural disasters during soybean growing stages and evaluation the losses of soybean caused by flooding, investigation and evaluation of soybean losses induced by natural disasters and flooding are required.  In Tainan area, there were 3 damaged by typhoon in the summer of 1992 and 2 damages by rain in the spring of 1993.  These natural disasters caused heavy damaged of soybean including decay of pod, break of branch, lodging, and reduction of seed yield (7.3%~81.5%).  In Kao-King areas, there was rain damages happened in the summer while wind damages were in the fall of 1991.  One strong thunderstorm with hailstone was found in the spring of 1992.  These natural disasters caused heavy damages of soybean including losses of leaves and pods, lodging, and reduction of seed yield (38.4%~100%) and quality of soybean.  Seed yield and quality of soybean were significantly reduced when plants were drenched by irrigation water for three days.  Pods number, 100-seed weight were decreased while plant height, lodging, stained and number of immatured seeds were increased by flooding.  Highest yield reductions were found at late stages (R4~R8) for soybean frown at Tainan (12.5~35% at R7, R8) plots.

Key words: soybean, natural disasters, yield loss, flooding stress

Accepted for publication: April 11, 1996


 

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