行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第32號

土壤含水量對芒果生育、產量及品質之影響

張明聰 呂俊堅

摘  要

張明聰、呂俊堅.1995.土壤含水量對芒果生育、產量及品質之影響。台南區農業改良場研究彙報32:45~55。

本研究以微噴灌之定量供水設備並設立水分張力計,將土壤含水量設計區分為20%(-4∼-7分巴)、15%(-12∼-17分巴)及10%(-20∼-40分巴)等三處理,以調查對5年生芒果植株之抽梢、抽花穗、開花、結果及果實品質之影響。

當土壤水分充足時即土壤含水量為15∼20%,自枝條修剪後(8月上旬)至抽穗時有61%枝條抽2次梢,39%抽3次梢,末次梢的大小;葉數平均17片,葉面積計1199cm2,莖粗12mm,莖長平均21cm。抽花穗速度較慢,最終抽花穗率為85.4∼94.4%,平均花穗長度48cm。每花穗小花數平均3415朵,其中雄花佔47%,兩性花佔53%。開花期間3月13日至4月14日,開花高峰期為3月25日。開花後每花穗之著果情形;全無著果的花穗比率平均32%,每花穗平均著果量2.6個,每株著果量22∼26個。每株的最終產量為平均20∼21個,總重達3.7∼5.0公斤,單果重為185∼238公克。果實成熟後果肉呈黃色至淡黃色,果肉比率佔75∼76%,糖度12.8° Brix,酸度0.17∼0.18%,其榨汁率達85∼90%。

當土壤含水量減少至10%時,僅抽2次梢的枝條增加25%,亦即減少25%枝條抽3次梢,末次梢的大小;葉片少2片,葉面積減少371cm2,莖粗小3mm,莖長度短2 cm。抽花穗率高且較快速,最終抽穗率提高2.5∼11.5%,花穗長度短小13cm。每花穗小花數少306朵,花穗中雄花比率增加13%。開花期提早10天,開花高峰期則提早8天(3月17日)。開花後每花穗著果情形;全無著果的花穗比率增加24%,每花穗著果量減少73%,每株著果量減少57∼86%。每株的最終產量;個數減少1倍,重量減少3∼4倍。果肉成熟呈金黃色,果汁率少4∼9%,果肉比率亦少6∼7%,但糖度增加4.2° Brix。

關鍵詞:芒果、土壤含水量、生育、產量、品質。

接受日期:1995年10月6日。


Effects of Soil Water Content on the Development, Yield and Quality of Mango (mangifera indica)

Chang, M. T. and C. J. Lu

Summary

In an experiment from August 1994 to July 1995 carried out at the Hsin-Hwa branch station of Tainan District Agricultural Improvement Station, 5-year-old mango cv. Iwin trees planted in holes at a size of 1.7 m length × 1.7 m width × 1.5 m depth were subjected to 3 levels of soil water content (SWC) using a microsprinkler system.  Thereafter, 3 treatments consisted of: trees irrigated each day with total supply with 7 liter to maintain SWC with 20%, trees irrigated each day with total supply with 3.5 liter to maintain SWC with 15%,and trees irrigated each day with total supply with 1.4 liter to maintain the SWC with 10%.

There were significant differences in shoot and inflorescence growth, flower numbers and fruit-set percentage in each plant among treatments.  The trees in 10% SWC had the smallest fruit and lowest yield, pulp concentration and juice content, while highest in sugar content among the treatments.  The total yield of the trees in 15% SWC was lower than that of 20% SWC treatment.  The 20% SWC treatment produce the largest fruit and highest yield and juice content.

Key words: mango, soil water content, development, yield, quality.

Accepted for publication: October 6, 1995.



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