行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第31號

超甜玉米幼期薊馬類生態與藥劑防治

曾清田 吳炎融

摘  要

曾清田、吳炎融.1994.超甜玉米幼期薊馬類生態與藥劑防治。台南區農業改良場研究彙報31:47~59。

危害超甜玉米幼期薊馬種類有台灣玉米薊馬(Frankliniella williamsi Hood)、臺灣花薊馬(F. intonsa Trybom)及粟帶薊馬(Anaphothrips sudaensis Trybom)三種。其中以台灣玉米薊馬之發生密度最高,最超甜玉米幼期之重要害蟲,而台灣花薊馬及粟帶薊馬發生量均甚少,對超甜玉米不致構成危害。台灣玉米薊馬周年均可發生,但以1月上旬至3月中旬為其發生盛期。此期間若濕度適中,溫度在15∼23℃之間,有助其猖獗危害,倘遇乾旱或雨水過多,則不利其發生。用黃色黏紙誘集到之台灣玉米薊馬數量較從超甜玉米幼苗上採集到者為高,且其放置簡便,因此黃色黏紙可做為偵測台灣玉米薊馬族群消長之工具。台灣玉米薊馬可在13種雜草上發現,其中主要雜草棲所有刺莧Amaranthus spinosus L.及野莧A. viridis L. 等二種,次要者有鬼針草Bidens bipinnata L.、小葉灰藋Chenopodium ficifolium Sm.、狗牙根Cynodon dactylon Pers、芒稷Echinochloa colona(L.) Link、牛筋草Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn、山芥菜Rorippa atrovirens(L.) Hornem、狗尾草Setaria viridis(L.) 及龍葵Solanum nigrum L. 等八種。台灣玉米薊馬亦可發生在裸麥Avena nuda L.、燕麥A. sativa L.、大麥Hordeum vulgare L.、甘蔗Saccharum officinarum L.、黑小麥Seacale cereale L.及小麥Triticum vulgare Vill等禾本科作物上,但發生量不高。防治薊馬藥劑測試結果,五種供試藥劑中以2.8%畢芬寧乳劑稀釋1,000倍,每公頃每次用量0.8∼1.0公升之防治效果最佳。

關鍵詞:超甜玉米、薊馬、生態、防治。

接受日期:1994年7月12日。


Bionomics of Thrips Attacking the Early Stage of Supersweet Corn and Their Chemical Control

Tseng, C. T. and Y. Z. Wu

Summary

Three thrips species that attacked the early stage of supersweet corn zea mays L. were Frankliniella williamsi Hood, F. intonsa Trybom and Anaphothrips sundaensis Trybom.  Among them, F. williamsi Hood had the highest density and Trybom and A. sudaensis Trybom occurred in low number and were minor pests on the early stage of supersweet corn.  F. williamsi Hood could occur year round, its peak ranged from early January through mid-March.  Moderate humidity and temperature (15~23℃) favored it occurrence.  However dryness and high precipitation suppressed its occurrence, yellow sticky trap caught more number of F. williamsi then that of being collected from supersweet corn plants.  Therefore yellow sticky trap could be used as a tool for monitoring the population fluctuation of F. williamsi.  In the field F. williamsi could inhabit on 13 weed species.  Among them, Amaranths spinosus L. and A. Viridis L. were its major weed habitats.  Bidens bipinnata L., Chenopodium ficifolium Sm, Cynodon Dactylon Pers, Echinochloa colona (L.) Link, Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn, Rorippa atrovirens (L.) Hornem, Setaria iridis (L.) and Solanum nigrum L. were its minor ones.  F. williamsi could also inhibit on nude wheat Avena nuda L., oats A. sativa L., barley Hordeum vulgare L., sugarcane Saccharum officinarum L., black wheat Seacale cereale L. and wheat Triticum vulgare Vill.  But the number of F. williamsi occurring on above gramineous crops was low.  The results from the screening test on the controlling thrip insecticides indicated that 2.8% Bifenthrin E. C. diluted 1000 times was the most effective one for controlling F. williamsi on the early stage of supersweet corn.

Key words: supersweet corn, thrips, bionomics, control.

Accepted for publication: July 12, 1994.



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