行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第28號

耕作制度對土壤肥力及作物產量與收益關係之研究

李文輝

摘  要

李文輝.1992.耕作制度對土壤肥力及作物產量與收益關係之研究。台南區農業改良場研究彙報28:23~37。

本研究於1986~1990年在嘉義縣鹿草雙期作田進行,探討水田輪作旱作物後土壤理化性及肥力變化,以及旱作物生產潛力。以一期作或二期作水稻與旱作輪作及全年旱作輪作等方式,組成為(A)水稻-水稻(對照)(B)水稻-大豆-玉米(C)水稻-田菁-玉米(D)大豆-水稻-玉米(E)高粱-宿根高粱-玉米(F)高粱-大豆-玉米等六種耕作制度,並以雙期水稻為對照,經五年同一地點試驗結果顯示,水稻與旱作物輪作可改善土壤理化性質,增加有效性磷鉀含量。水稻經輪作旱作物,作物產量呈顯著差異,輪作田菁為一期作水稻增產3﹪,秋作玉米增加31﹪,高粱輪作大豆亦可增加春作高粱產量22﹪。依農家勞力分配,水資源有效利用,以及作物產量與純收益考量,適宜稻田耕作制度為水稻-大豆-玉米、水稻-田菁-玉米、及高粱-大豆-玉米等三種耕作制度,分別較雙期水稻全年純收益增加42、39、及30﹪。以上耕作制度可依水資源供需,進行水田利用之調整及稻田轉作之參考。

關鍵詞:水稻、高粱、大豆、玉米、旱作、土壤肥力、產量、耕作制度、純收益。

接受日期:1991年12月23日。


Effect of Cropping System on the Soil Fertility, Crop Yield and Farmers Income

Lee, W. H.

Summary

This study was conducted form 1986 to 1990 in the paddy field located in Lutsao, Chiayi.  The purpose of this study is to discuss the effect of rice and upland crop rotation systems on the soil physical property, soil fertility, crop yield and farmer’s income.  The rice-upland crop rotation systems included: (A) rice-rice (check), (B) rice-soybean-corn, (C) rice-sesbania-con, (D) soybean-rice-corn, (E) sorghum-ratoon sorghum-corn, (F) sorghum-soybean-corn.  The results of the 5-year experiments revealed that rice rotated with upland crops could improve soil physical property, increase soil phosphorus content and crop productivity.  Rotation with sesbania increased yield of rice grain by 3%, corn kernel in fall crop by 31%.  Sorghum rotated with soybean could increase sorghum grain yield by 22%.  From the consideration based on the availability of farmer labor, the utilization of water sources, crop yield and the farmer’s profit, the proper or recommended rotation systems were: rice-soybean-corn; rice-sesbania-corn and sorghum-soybean-corn, their net returns were increased by 42%, 39% and 30%, respectively, as compared with rice rotated with rice.  The above rotation systems could be served as reference for the more efficient use of water source supply, and adjustment of paddy field utilization.

Accepted for publication: December 23, 1991.



回研究彙報目錄