行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第25號

檬果花性表現生理之研究

楊紹榮 李國權 張武男

摘  要

楊紹榮、李國權、張武男.1990.檬果花性表現生理之研究。台南區農業改良場研究彙報25:31~51。

民國75年9月至民國77年4月在台灣中部(緯度:24°15´)調查單胚型檬果品種(凱特、愛文及海頓)與多胚型檬果品種(本地種及懷特)之花性表現得知:檬果花穗由雄花、兩性花及不完全兩性花組成,田間自然環境下,不同月別抽出花穗之兩性花比率受溫度影響,低溫時期(氣溫小於18℃)花芽分化及發育者,兩性花形成最少,18∼25℃時最適宜兩性花之形成,氣溫大於25℃兩性花形成漸受抑制,調查顯示12月抽穗之兩性花比率最少。品種不同,兩性花比率也不同,以凱特檬果最高為49.8%,愛文次之為34.1%,海頓再次之為18.9%,本地種土芒果為17.6%,而懷特檬果最少11.2%;花穗著生位置亦影響花性表現,花穗著生於南邊及樹冠頂端者兩性花比率最大,分別為45.2%及41.3%,而著生於西邊及北邊者最少,為26.0%及20.7%;樹齡不同花性表現亦異,一年生盆栽愛文檬果兩性花比率最大,為71%,七年生次之,為51%,二十年生者最少46%。二年生盆栽愛文檬果苗以黑色尼龍網遮蔭(40∼65%遮光率)處理之兩性花比率較不遮蔭者減少15.1∼23.6%。不同範圍花性比之花穗下方第一節中段葉片之要素,可溶性碳水化合物及澱粉濃度均無規則性之趨勢,又新鮮葉片總酚類化合物含量和兩性花比率亦無明顯關係。

關鍵詞:檬果、花性表現、雄花、兩性花。

接受日期:1990年10月8日。


Physiological Studies of the Sex Expression of Mango

Yang, S. R., K. C. Lee and W. N. Chang

Summary

The mango panicle consists of male, hermaphrodite and imperfect flowers.  Air temperature greatly affected the percentage of hermaphrodite flowers emerging from the shoots in different months.  The optimum temperatures for the formation of hermaphrodites were between 18℃ and 25℃.  Temperature below 18℃ or above 25℃ was found to have inhibitory effects.  The amount of hermaphrodites in flowers varied with the months of the year and the cultivars of the plant.  December was the month which showed the lowest ;occurrence rate and Keitt was the cultivar which had the highest occurrence frequency (49.8%) followed by cvs. Irwin (34.1%), Haden (18.9%), Native (17.6%) and White (49.8%).  Higher hermaphrodite rates were observed on the top (41.3%) and in the southern part (45.2%) of the canopy as opposed to 26.0 and 20.7% in the western and northern sides, respectively.  Age of plant plays a part in sex ration as well.  One-year-old Irwin was found to contain 71% hermaphrodite flowers, on the other hand, 7-year-old and 20-year-old plants has only 51 and 46% of this kind of flowers, respectively.  Shading plants with black nylon net (40~65% shading) helped the suppress of the phenomenon.  The shaded plants was proved to bear 15.1~23.6% less hermaphrodite flowers than the unshaded ones.  When concentrations of mineral nutrients, soluble carbohydrate, starch and total phenolic compounds of the middle leaves of the first internode below panicles were analyzed for their relationship to sex ration. No clear picture emerges. Further investigations are needed to clear those points of interest.

Accepted for publication: October 8, 1990.



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