行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第24號

落花生黃麴毒素污染與產期、乾燥方式及貯藏條件相互關係之研究

顏正益 鄭安秀

摘  要

顏正益、鄭安秀.1990.落花生黃麴毒素污染與產期、乾燥方式及貯藏條件相互關係之研究。台南區農業改良場研究彙報24:45~63。

本研究目的在於欲明瞭不同期作與不同產地之落花生是否受到黃麴毒素污染及經不同之乾燥方式含不同含水量之後的落花生,在不同貯藏條件之下,經過半年後,測定黃麴毒素污染之情形,期能找出減少黃麴毒素污染之最佳條件,供生產者及加工業之參考。

從不同期作之落花生受黃麴毒素污染情形顯示,無論春作或秋作,污染率均以乾燥莢果較鮮莢為高;鮮仁及乾仁均可測得黃麴毒素的存在,鮮莢及乾莢均可分離到Aspergillus flavus,但不論是黃麴毒素的含量或A. flavus的分離率則均以春作落花生較秋作落花生為高。另外,春作莢果破損率高於秋作莢果,而夾什物、罹病蟲害率及未成熟莢果百分率,則以乾燥後之莢果較收穫時之莢果為少。

落花生以日光及乾燥機兩種方式乾燥處理,使莢果處於不同種仁含水量,經塑膠袋或飼料袋兩種貯存處理後,定期調查落花生受黃麴毒素之污染情形,其結果顯示,貯藏時間之長短及不同的包裝貯存方式與莢果A. flavus之分離率及種仁黃麴毒素之產生,無明顯相關性存在。

由本研究結果得知,落花生生長期間之田間管理,如能減少對莢果之人為及機械傷害,及有效防治病蟲害,加上收穫時及乾燥過程中,儘量減少莢果的破損,且縮短暴露於大氣中的時間,將可使黃麴毒素的污染程度降到最低。而帶殼落花生在室溫下貯存應以不超過4個月為宜,其種仁含水量以9%為佳。


Aflatoxin Contamination in Peanuts from Various Seasons, Location, Drying Methods and Storage Conditions

Yen, C. I. And A. H. Cheng

摘  要

Surveys were made to explore aflatoxin contamination in peanuts from different seasons, locations, drying methods, and storage conditions in fall 1985 to spring 1987.  Five samples, 2kg each, of the variety Tainan Selection No.9 were randomly selected from former harvested products for studies.  The investigation items included days of drying by sunlight, seed moisture content, percentage of broken pods, percentage of debris, percentage of pods damaged by pests, percentage of immature pods, percentage of A. flavus-contamination and quantity of aflatoxin in the seeds/pods.  Results showed that all the items listed above except the percentage of broken pods after drying, were higher than that in the fresh pods.  However, the percentage of debris, the percentage of pods damaged by pests and the percentage of immature pods in the dried pods were lower than that in the fresh pods.  The percentage of broken pods after drying was higher in the spring crop than that in the fall crop.  Aflatoxin quantity was higher in the fresh pods than that in the dried pods, and it was higher in the spring crop than in the fall crop.  The percentage of A. flavus isolated in fresh pods and dried pods were higher in the spring crop than that in the fall crop.  The materials for the study of aflatoxin contamination were dried by sunlight or by a machine dryer to adjust the seed moisture content at 15, 13, and 9%.  They were separately packed, 20 kg/bag, with nylon or plastic bags, and placed at room temperatures for 6 months.  Seed moisture, color of seed coat, percentage of A. flavus-contamination and quantity of aflatoxin in the pods/seeds were surveyed in a month intervals.  The results indicated that no correlation was observed between contamination and storage time or quantity of aflatoxin in the pods/seeds.  Packing materials also did not influence on the percentage of contamination or quantity of aflatoxin in the pods/seeds.



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