行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第24號

番茄夜蛾之生態及其防治方法之商榷

陳文雄 張煥英

摘  要

陳文雄、張煥英.1990.番茄夜蛾之生態及其防治方法之商榷。台南區農業改良場研究彙報24:21~34。

番茄夜蛾(Tomato fruit worm:Helicoverpa armigera Hübner)為台灣重要害蟲之一,幼蟲雜食性。可危害多種作物,卵散產,幼蟲體色有變化,常與寄主顏色相近,但與食物及成蟲體色之關係不明顯,卵期1-8天,幼蟲期14-51天,蛹期7-114天,成蟲壽命2-15天,性比例約1:1。幼蟲之存活率可達94.5%,蛹之羽化率可達92.68%,完成一世代需22-162天。一年有8世代。雌雄成蟲體色互異。

雌蛾呈暗土黃或黃褐色。雄蛾呈灰綠色,成蟲具趨光性。晝伏夜出,傍晚及清晨最活躍,以花蜜為食,幼蟲6齡,有自殘性(Cannibalism)。危害習性常因作物不同而異。老熟幼蟲土中化蛹,本蟲以秋季及春季為主要發生季節,每天10-11月中旬田間幼蟲常感染白殭菌或黑殭菌,罹病率可達80-95%,依據78年藥劑篩選結果,供試藥劑中除50%Malathion EC之效果較差外,40% Trithion-C EC, 40% Trithion-C WP, 40% Dyfonate-C EC, 40% Imidan-C WP, 13.5% Lanfas EC, 2.8% Cyhalothrin EC, 5% Atabron EC, 2.8% Deltamethrin EC 及 90% Lannate WP等之效果尚佳。目前以性費洛蒙偵測田間成蟲族群動態配合藥劑防治外,尚需注意田間衛生及寄主轉移情形,方可收事半功倍之防治效果。


 

Ecological Studies on Tomato Fruit Worm and Its Control

Chen, W. S. and F. I. Chang

摘  要

Tomato fruit worm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner) is one of the important insect pests in Taiwan now. The larvae were polyphagous and attacked on many kinds of crop. Female moth laid the eggs separately. The color of larvae were changeable even they hatched from the eggs which lay by same female moth. The color of larvae always closed to their host plants. But the relationships among the color of larvae, adults and food were insignificant. To complete one generation the egg stage took 1 to 8 days; larval stage took 14 to 51 days; pupal stage too 7 to 114 days. The duration of one successful generation took 22 to 162 days. There occurred 8 generations in a year. Sex ratio was about 1 to 1. The survival percentage of larvae may reach 94.5%. The pupated percentage reached 92.68% more or less. The color of female moth was different from the male. The female moth was always in dark yellow brown but gray with light green for the male. The adults prepared with phototropism and active habit in the dusk and early morning and fed on nectar. The larvae molt 5 times and cannibalism always happened among them especially in mass rearing. The feeding behavior or habits of larvae was different on the different host plants and finally pupated in the soil. Fall and spring were the outbreaking seasons. The larvae always suffered from Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae easily from October to November at Cha-Nan Area. The percentage of disease larvae reached 80% to 95%. According to the chemical screen test on the larvae, we found 40% Trithion-c EC, 40% Trithion-c WP, 40% Dyfonate-c EC, 40% Imidan-c WP, 13.5% Lanfas EC, 2.8% Cyhalothrin EC, 5% Atabron EC, 2.8% Deltamethrin EC and 90% Lannate WP were successful for the control of the pest but 50% Malathion EC was poor. except the use of sex pheromone to monitor the population dynamics and chemical control the pest., the attention must be paid to the field sanitation and the host plants changing of the pest to keep a good result on control.



回研究彙報目錄