行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第22號

臺灣玉米黑穗病防治之探討

曾建銘

摘  要

曾建銘.1988.臺灣玉米黑穗病防治之探討。臺南區農業改良場研究彙報22:13~23。

玉米黑穗病冬胞子發芽可由蔗糖促進,而發芽最適溫度在25∼35℃之間,且不受光線之影響。不同生育期接種以小生子注射法呈現較穩定效果,而冬胞子或小生子心葉接種在3葉期接種時效果較佳,其餘各生育期接種效果仍不穩定。玉米品種以甜玉米較易感染,飼料玉米發病率甚低。防治藥劑篩選以四氯丹、新雷丹效果較佳,對冬胞子具有殺菌作用,且不影響玉米種子之發芽,但種子處理後無法控制田間玉米黑穗病感染,當田間施用時僅於雌穗吐絲期略具效果,尚無實用價值。故現階段玉米黑穗病防治,只能採用預防措施,可在罹病組織未破裂,即冬胞子未逸散之前採集焚燬,或於疫區採種之玉米種子,利用四氯丹拌種,以防黑穗病之擴散而已。


Studies on Corn Smut Control in Taiwan

C. M. Tseng

Summary

        The optimal temperature for the germination of teliospore of Ustilago maydis in medium was between 25 and 35 degree C.  The germination of teliospore of U. maydis could be stimulated by sucrose, but not influenced by light.  Experiment of different inoculation methods at different corn growth stages showed that the sporidia injection method was most effective and stable over all growth stages, whereas the teliospore or sporidia whole inoculation method was unstable except at 3-leaf stage.  The results showed that sweet corn varieties were more susceptible to U. maydis than field corn varieties, and the infected percentage of field corn was lower.  Among the fungicides used, Captafol and Dithianon were more effective to kill the teliospore and which had no harmful effect to corn seed germination.  There was no practical use for corn seed treated with fungicide to control U. maydis in the field and fungicide spraying at corn silking stage only had limited control effect.  It was suggested that corn smut disease could be prevented only by sanitary at present.  In the infected area, collected and burned off the tomurlike tissue of corn smut before ruptured of fungicide treatment of corn seed after harvested should have some effects to reduce the disease dissemination.

Research Bulletin of Tainan DAIS 22:13~23



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