行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第21號

洋香瓜隧道式栽培肥液灌溉系統及液體肥料應用之研究

林滄澤 黃賢良

摘  要

林滄澤、黃賢良.1987.洋香瓜隧道式栽培肥液灌溉系統及液體肥料應用之研究。台南區農業改良場研究彙報21:43~56。

洋香瓜隧道式栽培由於畦面在PE布覆蓋下,傳統的施肥及灌溉方法,受PE布之阻隔而難以作業,以致生育中後期植株易受養分及水分缺乏之不利影響。

為解決此等技術問題,本試驗設計一套可以將液體肥料與灌溉水自動混合施灌的“肥液灌溉系統”(Fertigation system)利用源自抽水泵之水壓,做為液肥流出量控制之動力源,並可以之調整液體肥料之混合濃度。配水支管以國產PE穿孔軟管敷設於畦面PE布之下,可有效達到滴灌之效果。本系統之設計,亦突破傳統滴灌方式必須使用滴嘴的限制,水分及肥液之分布效果並比慣行之滴灌為佳,同時兼具噴灌的快速作業效率,且其設施成本及維護均遠較傳統滴嘴式滴灌設施低廉及簡單。

經七十四年冬作試驗結果顯示,本系統可有效的操控水分及肥液之輸送,洋香瓜對肥效反應極佳,生長迅速,著果期及收穫期分別提早12及7天,並提高每個果重及每株果數,鮮果增產40%。

本系統之設施成本低,裝御與操作簡易,具有簡化液體肥料混合施用技術,及對各種作物適用性廣與設備重複使用率高等優點,因而推廣應用之可性極高。

關鍵字:肥液灌溉系統(Fertigation system)、液體肥料(Liquid fertilizer)PE穿孔灌溉軟管(PE perforated irrigation tube)、滴灌(Trickle irrigation)、洋香瓜隧道式栽培(PE sheet-tunnel cultivation of muskmelon)


Studies on the Fertigation System and the Application of Liquid Fertilizer for PE Sheet Tunnel

T. T. Lin & S. L. Hwang

Summary

Since the successful extension of PE sheet tunnel cultivation of muskmelon develop by Tainan DAIS, the existence of a plastic sheet mulched on the soil became the barrier of irrigation and fertilizer application, and always caused deficiency of water and nutrient in the middle to late growth stage.  In order to overcome the difficulties of irrigation and fertilizer application after transplanting, a new “Fertigation” system to combine irrigation and liquid fertilizer placement together was designed.

        The equipment of “Fertigation” system was divided into 3 parts: a control head, a main line and the lateral lines.  Control head is consisted of a liquid fertilizer tank, a pressure gage, a flow meter and a flow control valve.  Main line is a 2-inch PVC pipe in diameter.  The lateral lines are some low pressure (less than 1 kg/cm) and perforated PE twin tubes which were installed under the mulched PE sheet.  Only one water pump is needed to operate this system as the power source.

        The liquid fertilizer and irrigation water could be mixed automatically when fertilizer application is desired.  The concentration of liquid fertilizer can be adjusted by changing the difference of water pressure between the main pipe and the tank of liquid fertilizer.

        Results of this experiment in the winter of 1985 showed that under the “Fertigation” system, both irrigation and fertilizer application can be operated easily, and resulted in 12 and 7 days earlier than control plots for fruit setting and harvesting, respectively.  The yield of muskmelon was increased 40% more than the control plots.  Top dressing of liquid fertilizer also showed a great benefit in supplying nutrients for the rooting system of muskmelon that covered by a PE sheet.  The new system is durable, very easy to install and operate.  The cost is very low in contrast with the traditional “trickle/drip irrigation” system, which is much expensive to install and not easy to maintain.



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