行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第18號

落花生抗蚽f育種之評估

徐進生 方新政 楊允聰 劉素心

摘  要

落花生(Arachis hypogaea L.)為台灣之重要雜糧作物,1980年栽培面積達53,000餘公頃。落花生蚽f(Puccinia arachidis Speg.)自1970年發現以來迄今已成為主要病害,由於受害面積逐漸擴大因而影響落花生產量甚鉅。

1973年經農發會由美國農部分讓抗蚽f種源PI314817,PI259747及PI298115等三品系,隨即著手以回交法為主之抗病育種工作。非輪廻親為PI314817,輪廻親則包括台南6號,台南選9號及台南10號。雜交後代以混合法處理,並配合抗病田間檢定,俾選拔具有抗蚽f之優良品系。

迄1983年之10年間之初步結果顯示,73(2)─6─26、74(1)─1─52、74(1)─1─9、75(2)─3─21、78(2)─4─31、78(2)─4─33及79(2)─21-62等品系之抗病性比台南選9號較強,雖形質與產量尚不理想但似可供為抗病育種材料。

在選拔過程中發Valencia型(如PI314817)和Spanish型(諸如台南選9號等)之什交後代,其株型及莢型等農藝性狀近似於Valencia型者較多,故似乎不易選拔具有高度抗病之Spanish型品系。

1981∼82年復引進ICRISAT及美國農部Hammons博士之種源多種(Tifrust-1∼14),經檢定後已考慮做為育種材料。


Evaluation of Breeding With Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.)Lines Resistant to Rust Disease

C. S. Hsu, H. C. Fang, Y. T. Yang and S. H. Liu

Summary

Peanuts which are one of the important dryland crops in Taiwan were cultivate up to 53,000 has in 1980.  Peanut rust (Puccinia orachidis Speg.) found since 1970 has thus for become a major disease in peanut production.  The gradual increase in the infected area have caused a great deal of yield loss.

In 1973, three resistant accessions were shared from USDA through CAPD’s help, a rust-resistant breeding project was then established by using back-cross procedure; PI314817 was used as nonrecurrent parent, bulk method was used to handle the hybrid progenies, field identification of rust-resistant segregates was conducted to select the promising lines with rust resistance.

A preliminary results made in 10years up to 1983 showed that several lines such as 73(2)-6-26, 74(1)-1-52, 74(1)-1-9, 75(2)-3-21, 78(2)-4-33, 78(2)-4-31 and 79(2)-21-62 were rated higher in rust-resistance than CK(Tainan #9).  These lines were not good yield but might be used as breeding materials.

During the selection, more segregates in the progeny populations derived from crosses between Valencia (e.g. PI 314817) and Spanish type (e.g. Tainan #9), peanut showed the agronomic characters of Valencia type such as plant type, pod shape, etc., resulting in a possibly reduced probability to select Spanish type individuals with high rust resistance.

In 1981-82, some germplasm collections of rust resistance in cluding Tif rust-1 to –14 were also introduced from ICRISAT and USDA (Dr. Hammons) and were considered as breeding materials after evaluation.



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