行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第16號

秋裡作玉米不整地栽培之施肥研究

謝元德 黃和炎

摘  要

秋裡作玉米增產關鍵在於提早播種時期,其期限在嘉南平原為10月中下旬,前作物多數是中間作或2期作水稻,部份玉米產區之土壤為中質地,於水稻收穫後土壤含水量尚高,無法立刻整地播種,但可以進行不整地方式播種,即用移植鏝或小鋤頭依欲定行株距挖穴播入種子。本項研究工作在1979∼1981年2期4處,選在嘉義縣太保、新港及台南縣學甲進行田間試驗,用不同肥料量及不同施用方法組成9處理加以比較,其結果經統計分析三要素需要量估計為180-60∼90-40∼80 Kg/ha,磷鉀需要量不盡相同似與土壤磷鉀含量有關;其用法磷肥宜全量當基肥,或者基肥開溝施用較有利於玉米之增產。每次施肥前先行濕潤灌溉,施肥後利用稻草等加以覆蓋以提高肥效。


Studies on Surface-Applied Fertilizer in No-tillage Corn

Y. D. Hsieh and H. Y. Huang

Summary

        Experiment has been carried out at Tainan and Chia-Yi Hsien corn production area for studying effectiveness of surface applied fertilizer since 1979.  A 2 crop-year of 4 locations field trials was made by randomized block design with 4 replications.  Nitrogen rate was from 100 to 220 kg/ha; P2O5 from 30 to 90 kg/ha; and K2O from 40 to 80 kg/ha.  Based on the results of four experimental site, it may be concluded that the optimum nutrient rates for no-tillage corn on surface applied fertilizer are: N 180 kg/ha, P2O5 60~90 kg/ha; K2O 40~80 kg/ha.  The potassium and phosphorous rate required are not in the same range, it may be affected by soil reaction and available P2O5 and K2O content.

        Total phosphorus as basal are better than divided into two times applied, which increase corn grain yield 5.6~10.4% in different location, if basal fertilizer applied by drill in 12 cm near seed and 10 cm deep from surface soil that increase grain yield 2.0~11.1%.



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