行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第15號

蔬菜跳蟲之生態及防治研究(一)

陳文雄

摘  要

一、蔬菜跳蟲(Hypogastura armata Nicolect)為一種蔬菜新害蟲,屬於彈尾目(Collembola),紫跳蟲科(Hypogasturidae),紫跳蟲屬(Hypogastura)之一種低等昆蟲。其變態不明顯,若蟲與成蟲之外部形態相似,無明顯改變,只有大小之分。其卵呈圓形、乳白色、半透明初孵化之若蟲呈半透明體色灰白,而後體色漸次加深,最後呈灰紫色、體被茸毛、觸角四節、腹部六節、胸足跗節具單爪,終生無翅。腹部末端具向背方彎曲之釣狀物一對,口器咀嚼式,下口式。腹部腹方具腹管,攫器及彈器等均較一般跳蟲者小,彈器粗短。甫孵化之若蟲即可爬行與跳躍。

二、蔬菜跳蟲之卵產於土縫,成卵塊狀,一般15∼30粒一處,其上無覆蓋物,若蟲於土縫中集中脫皮,其蛻經灌水或下雨時,與其蟲體漂浮於水面而構成如灰燼一般。於發生盛期,常可見如灰燼一般覆滿灌溉溝或蓄水池,於菜園之密度可達4,000隻/250cm2或以上,於族群中常可發現隱翅蟲同時存在。

三、依據觀察及調查結果,本蟲主要為害之蔬菜如莧菜、白菜、菠菜,時而加害空心菜等之心葉,待葉部長大後具蟲孔而失去商品價值,偶而取食菜園中之青苔。

四、本蟲之發生季節,以12月至次年5月中旬,如果雨季遲來,則可延至6月中下旬。其中以2∼4月為高峰期,本蟲在田間之消長受雨量之影響至距。

五、依據藥劑篩選結果,防治本蟲以粒劑較其他劑形為佳,供試藥劑中以10%Controven G,10%Thimet G,3%Furadan G及較具5%Controven G於播種前行土壤處理較具防治效果。


Ecological Studies on Hypogastura armata Nicolect and its control

Chen Wen-Shyong

Summary

1.Hypogastura armataNicolect is one of the key pests at vegetable cropping area in Taiwan now.

2.The egg is round, semitransparent and in milky-white color. When the nymphs are hatching from eggs all in white color and changing into dark-gray and light gray gradually.  But they were always found in the vegetable farm in purple-gray or dark purple. Antenna is 4 segments, abdomen is 6 segments and the legs with one claw. The pests have no wing in all life.  The mouthparts are chewing type.  The spring organ, catch and ventral tube, are short and strong.

3.The nymphs or adults always live on the soil surface or hide in the suture of soil or under vegetable leaves, when water is coming, they always float on the water surface and just like ash cover on the water surface or soil surface.

4.The outbreak seasons are from December to the coming mid May and the peak of the outbreak is from February too April.  Its population density may arrive 4000/250 cm2 and it’s always affected by rainfall.

5.The pest mainly attacks on Edible Amaranth (Amarantaceae), Pai-Tsai (Cruci-ferae) and Spinach (Chen opodiaceae).  When those vegetables are young, the pest attacks their youngest leaves or growth point.  After growing up, the injury symptoms on the leaves can be found easily and decrease the economic value.

6.ccording to the test result of chemical control, granular type of insecticides always show much more effective than liquid or wettable powder.  Among them, 10% Controven G, 10% Thimet, 3% Furadan G and 5% Controven G are showing more effective than the others.



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