行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第15號

水稻長期施用矽酸爐渣試驗與應用推廣

黃和炎 施宗禮 林滄澤

摘  要

自民國66年第二期作水稻開始選擇雙期作水田,即嘉義縣民雄鄉及台南縣壁鄉各設置一處矽酸爐渣連用試驗區,以觀察其對水稻之反應,爐渣用量處理分為0,1.5,3.0噸/公頃,隨機區集排列2重複。每期作均固定在同一塊田連用,至69年一期共6期,爐渣累積用量達每公頃9噸(1.5噸區)及18噸(3噸區),但仍表現增產現象,即在民雄3噸區增產8.6%,1.5噸區增產3.7%;在後壁1.5噸區7.9%,而3噸區則增產2.1%。對土壤有效性SiO2含量則表示增加,尤其第1次施用(67-1)增加最顯著,至69年民雄3噸區達180ppm(處理前11ppm),後壁275ppm(處理前25ppm)。對土壤pH反應,施用爐渣區pH均提高,3噸區在民雄處理前4.2至69年1期提高至6.1,同處理後壁由5.2升至6.4。至69年1期尚未有逆效果發生。

省產矽酸爐渣含可溶性氧化矽(SiO2)23-28%,已證實能增進水稻莖葉強硬(表皮細胞之矽質化),增加陽光利用效率且能抗倒伏與病蟲害,並使根部生長正常,提高磷肥之吸收率及緩和氮肥過多之害。

本場自67年起開始在轄區內靠山部份酸性土壤稻田大面積推廣使用,至69年度推廣面積達1000公頃以上。示範結果增產率平均67年度11.3%,68年度一期作7.8%,同年二期作6.6%,69年度5.6%。68、69年之增產率略低之原因係由於該兩年之稻熱病發生程度輕微所致。三年間之示範觀摩,農民認識及反應至佳,已自69年起納入肥料配銷系統由農民自由申購。


Long-Term Silicate Slag Application and it Extension Practice on Rice

H. Y. Huang, T. L. Shih, T. T. Lin

Summary

1. Long-term silicate slag application

This experiment has been carried out at Min-Hsung (Chia-Yi Hsin) and Hou-Pi (Tainan Hsin) since 2nd crop 1977 to 1st crop 1980 of 6 rice crops.  The slag treatments were divided into 0, 1.5 and 3.0 tons per hectare by randomized block design with 2 replications, and the slag application was fixed in the same plot.  The results are shown as follows: (1) The grain yield was more increased at the treatment with 3.0 ton/ha slag than with 1.5 ton/ha slag in each rice crop at Min-Hsung site, but on the contrary, the treatment of 1.5 ton/ha slag was better than the treatment of 3.0 ton/ha at Hou-Pi trial.  The total silicate slag applied until 1st crop 1980 was accumulated to 9 and 18 ton/ha at the 1.5 and 3.0 ton/ha plot, respectively.  However, the yield still had an 8.6% and 3.7% increase at the 3.0 and 1.5 ton/ha plot at Min-Hsung site, respectively, but 2.1% and 7.9% at Hou-Pi site.  (2) The soul reaction was affected by slag application.  The pH value was increased from 4.2 (at initial 3 ton/ha slag application) to 6.1 (18 ton/ha accumulation of 6 times application) at Min-Hsung filed trial, and an increase from Ph 5.2 to 6.4 at Hou-Pi field trial. (3) The available SiO2 content in soil was 11 ppm at initial (before application) and increased to 185 ppm and 98 ppm (after 6 times application) at 3.0 and 1.5 ton/ha plot, respectively at Min-Hsung field trials, but an increased from 25 ppm to 288 ppm and 132 ppm for 3.0 ton/ha plot and 1.5 ton/ha plot at Hou-Pi field trial, respectively.

2. Silicate slag extension practice

The slag extension practice work was beginning at Min-Hsung County in 1st crop 1978.  The total acreage 250 hectare including ¼ of acreage applied slag and ¾ as check was carried out at each farmer’s farm.  The results revealed that there was an 11.3% yield increase of average.  The extension acreage was increased more than 1000 hectares until 1st crop in 1980 at hill side paddies, that got a 5.6% increase of average grain yield.

        The application of slag by using a deep dressing was better than surface dressing.  The optimum rate of silicate slag used was at 2 ton/ha at paddies in Chia-Nan area.



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