行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第14號

洋蔥開花習性與授粉之研究

張明聰

摘  要

一、洋蔥的開花期(Blooming date)始自種球(Mother bulb)定植後80天,開花盛期則為104天。開花期間平均約為48天左右,在本省南部氣候下開花盛期約自2月下旬∼3月上旬。

二、在1天24小時中洋蔥均能開花但以上午9時至下午5時最多佔73%,晨間第2佔21%,夜間最少佔6%。

三、雄蕊花藥的成熟期內輪3枚約自開花後27小時,再經24小時凋謝,繼之外輪3枚成熟,經27小時凋謝。故6枚雄蕊成熟產生花粉的期間約51小時左右。

四、雌蕊在開花時柱頭未成熟,花柱長僅1.0mm,待花柱伸長至5.5mm時柱頭成熟開張始有授粉能力(Receptability),其時為自開花後約84小時,此時雄蕊的花粉均已散失且凋謝。雌蕊的柱頭自成熟開張至凋謝約108小時。

五、雌蕊柱頭的授粉力以開花後第6日最佳。

六、洋蔥花序(Inflorescence)開花期間約為48天,在放任授粉下(Open-pollination)結實率以開花後第25∼28天最高。

七、各種不同授粉方式影響洋蔥自交結實率很大,其中用人工鑷子授粉結實率最高達81%,第2為放任授粉64.3%,第3用蒼蠅(House fly)或蜜蜂(Bee)為43.0∼54.6%,人工羽毛授粉時結實率較低,3天1次16.7%、2天1次為14.0%、1天1次為11.2%。


Studies on Flower Behavior and Pollination in Onion (Allium cepa, L.) in Taiwan

M. T. Chang

Summary

1. The blooming period of onion is from first February to late March in southern part of Taiwan.

2. The flower of onion can open within 24 hours.  The highest number of open flowers is 73% at 9:00am ~ 5:00 pm, second is 21% in the morning, third is 6% at night.

3. The anthers of 3 inner stamens are first to dehisc that are 27 hours after the flower opened and shed their pollen 24 hours after that.  After the inner whorl of anthers has shed its pollen, the anthers of outer whorl of stamens dehisc and shed their pollen 27 hours after that.  So, the pollen period of 6 stamens is 51 hours long.

4. The style is approximately 1 mm long and the stigma still immature when the flower first opens.  It continues to elongate until reach its maximum length of about 5.5 mm.  That is 84 hours after flower opens and all pollens is shed before the stigma becomes receptive.  The stigma may extend a period of about 108 hours to have a receptability.

5. The best time to have a good receptability of stigma is at sixth day after flower open.

6. The blooming period of an inflorescence may extend 48 days and at 25~28 days can have a highest fruit setting under open pollination.

7. Different pollination methods can mostly influence on fruit setting under self-fertility.  The highest fruit-setting is 81% with force pollination, second is 64.3% with open pollination, forth is 43.0~54.6% with house fly or bee pollination, fifth is 16.7% with feather pollination one time 3 days, sixth is 14% with feather pollination one time 2 days, seventh is 11.2% with feather pollination one time one day.



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