行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第13號

粉碎穀殼育苗試驗

李文輝

摘  要

本場自民國65年底開始,利用粉碎穀殼,進行一系列有關育苗試驗,本報告包括五項小試驗:(1)粉碎穀殼育苗之肥料量及覆蓋物試驗。(2)粉碎穀殼用量育苗試驗。(3)不同粉碎程度穀殼育苗與肥料量試驗。(4)每吋20目粉碎穀殼育苗肥料量試驗。(5)穀殼混合土壤育苗試驗。由試驗結果證明粉碎穀殼確可做為插秧機育苗之良好材料,不僅可以成功的育成健強秧苗,並且可以降低育苗成本,提高農民純收益。茲將試驗結果,摘錄如下:

1.利用穀殼育苗必須加以粉碎,其粉碎程度以每吋20目為最佳,同時需篩除細粉米糠。

2.每箱粉碎穀殼填裝高度以1.5公分,重量約420公克至450公克為最適當。

3.播種後以500至600公克之粉碎土壤做為覆蓋,其秧苗生長情形最佳。

4.每箱肥料用量:第一、二期作均以硫酸錏5公克,過磷酸鈣5公克,氯化鉀3公克為最佳,不施肥時秧苗生長緩慢,葉色淡黃,秧苗品質差。

5.粉碎穀殼保水力較土壤強,一期作育苗時可二天灌水一次,而土壤育苗每天灌水。

6.第一期作土壤育苗較穀殼育苗初期生長較快,第二期作正好相反,穀殼秧苗生長較快。穀殼秧苗似較土壤秧苗茁壯,並較耐低溫,其有效苗期較土壤秧苗為長,一期作可延至35天,二期作20天,秧苗仍極強健,而土壤秧苗一期作25天,二期作15天即發生根部變黑,秧苗老化等不良現象。

7.穀殼秧苗每箱鮮苗重僅3至4公斤較土壤秧苗5至6公斤為輕,搬運較方便。

8.穀殼秧苗因根部生長較旺盛,且苗片較輕,插秧時必須先將根部觸沾濁水,使苗片易于滑落,以減少缺株及使每欉苗數均一。

9.利用每吋20目之粉碎穀殼2份混合土壤1份,不僅可使播種、育苗等操作更為順利,且育苗成功率更為安全可靠,插秧時亦較方便且可減少缺株,不經粉碎之穀殼1份混合土壤2份亦可適用。

10.利用粉碎穀殼育苗較土壤育苗每箱均可節省成本0.5元,每一育苗中心每期作育苗5萬箱計算,即可節省成本2萬5千元,全年可以節省5萬元。全省以目前350處育苗中心計算,可節省1750萬元。 


The research on the nursing of rice seedling in the milled hulls bed

W. H. Lee

Summary

        The collection of bed-soil is getting more difficult when the rice transplanter becomes more popular.  A new solution to this problem is necessary, so we made an attempt to find out some new materials which could be used to substitute the soil for raising seedling.  One kind of paper cushions made of paper tissues was tested in these experiments.

1. 8-8-4 gram/box of N:P:K fertilizers should be uniformly spread on the newspaper which was laid on the bottom of the box.  Since fertilizer would cause damage on the rice seedling if it were applied on the top soil which was used to cover the seeds.

2. Since the water keeping ability of the paper-cushion was stronger than that of the soil, therefore, rice seedlings growing in the paper-cushion were more resistant to freezing and water shortage.

3. The senescence in the paper-cushion rice seedlings was appeared later than that in the soil seedlings.

4. The data showed that straws, un-milled hulls, and saw-dust were not good for nursing purpose.

5. The optimum weight of paper-cushion for nursing was from 240 gram to 280 gram per box

The data above indicated that paper-cushion can be used as a new material to substitute the soil for rice nursing, but it is too expensive to be adopted.



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