行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第12號

小綠浮塵子Chlorita flavescens F 生態及防治研究

顏福成

摘  要

曾於台南調查落花生上小綠浮塵子之發生生態等,結果如下:

1.本蟲在台南年發生有15世代:

一世代所要期間:13∼45日 平均20.8日

卵  期  間:  6∼15日 平均   8.6日

若 蟲 期 間:  7∼31日 平均12.3日

2.雌蟲羽化後產卵情形如下:

羽化至產卵期間:1∼  9日 平均   3.0日

產 卵 期 間:1∼17日 平均   5.5日

一雌一日產卵數:0∼17粒 平均   2.8粒

一雌一生產卵數:0∼76粒 平均12.9粒

雌蟲羽化後3∼6日產卵數較多,餘依其前後順序漸滅。

3.在室內飼育中所羽化成蟲之性比,雌蟲稍較雄蟲為多,雌蟲率為54.3%。

4.成蟲壽命,雌蟲稍較雄蟲為長,雌雄總平均9.3日,最短2日,最長28日。

5.成蟲若蟲棲息於落花生之葉背或新芽上吸收養液,新芽被害嚴重者致枯死,輕者葉片黃變、皺縮,全株矮化等。成蟲並將卵粒分別產於嫩葉上靠近葉緣部位或葉脈、葉柄等組織內。

6.成熟若蟲在為害部位羽化,其羽化率40∼100%,平均77.2%。

7.本蟲在台南周年發生,以5∼1月間較多,其中8∼11月上旬最多,2月∼4月間較少。

以落花生播種期而言,3月∼10月間播種者,本蟲之發生數較多,其中6月∼9月間播種者密度最高。11月∼1月間播種者較少。

以期作而言,秋作(8月播種)之發生遠較春作(2月播種)為多。秋作落花生自播種後10天就可發現本蟲,後逐漸增加,約至70天後達高峰,其後漸降至收成為止。

8.本蟲發生為害與落花生產量之影響至鉅,尤其於秋作若不加以防治而任其自然發生者,影響產量達26.5%。

9.不同生育期別落花生,被本蟲為害所引起產量之損失,以生育初期最為嚴重。

10.落花生品種別對本蟲為害之感受程度,經初步觀察結果,台南10號具有若干程度之抗性。

11.春作落花生因本蟲發生密度較低無需用藥防治,但秋作於播種後約30天,每株發生約5隻時開始噴藥1∼2次較為經濟。

其防治藥劑為Azodrin, Tamaron, metasystox, Lannate等之0.05%稀釋液。


Ecological and Control Measures Studies on Small Green Leaf Hopper  (Chlorita Flavescen) in Peanut

F. C. Yen

Summary

        The results of ecological studies on small green leafhopper on peanut in Tainan are summarized as follows:

1. This pest had 15 generations in southern Taiwan each year.  The days needed for the completion of one successful generation are ranged from 13 to 45 days and 20.8 days in average.  The egg stage duration is ranged from 6 to 15 days and 8.6 days in average.  The nymphal stage duration is ranged from 7 to 31 days and 12.3 days in average.

2. Some characteristics of egg-deposition by female leaf-hopper after emergence are stated as follows:  The duration for preoviposition (from emergence to egg-deposition) is ranged from 1 to 9 days and 3.0days in average.  Egg-deposition is lasted from 1 to 17 days and 5.5 days in average.  The number of eggs deposited by a female is varied from 0 to 17 and 2.8 in average.  The total number of eggs deposited by a female in the whole is varied from 0 to 76 and 12.9 in average.  The peak of egg-deposition is lasted from 3 to 6 days after emergence.

3. The sexual ratio of female to male is 54.3 to 45.7.  It indicates that the number of female is more than males in population.

4. The life-span of the female is longer than that of the male, and average life-span are about 9.3 days for both sexes.  Their life-spans are ranged from 2 to 28 days.

5. The nymph and adult rest on the back side of the leaves or the new bud, and absorb the sap from it.  When the new bud being heavily attacked, it will dry to death, while it being slightly attacked would become yellowish, wrinkled, and stunted.  The female lays eggs on the tissue of new bud, leaf vein or leaf stalk.

6. The percentage of emergence ranged from 40% to 100% and 77.2% in average.

7. This pest occurs throughout the whole year in Tainan area.  Its population was higher from September to early November than those from February to April.  Looking from the peanut planting season, leaf hoppers have a heavier population from March to October than those from November to the following January.  The damage caused by leaf hopper is more serious in Fall crop than that in Spring crop.

8. The yield loss caused by leafhopper is very significant, especially in Fall crop.  If no control was taken, yield may decrease by 26.5%.

9. The yield loss caused by this pest in early growth stage of peanut is more serious than that of middle growth stage.

10. Different peanut variety shows different degree of susceptibility to this pest.  Tainan No. 10 seems to show some degree of resistance to this pest.

11. It is not necessary to use pesticide to control the leaf hopper of peanut in Spring crop because the population density is low.  In Fall crop, about 30 days after sowing and when each plant has 5 leaf hoppers, it is necessary to spray recommended pesticide solution in 1 or 2 times.  For the control of this pest by using the diluted solution of the 0.05% products such as Azodrin, Tamaron, Metasystox or Lannate could obtain the good results.



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