行政院農業委員會台南區農業改良場  研究彙報第11號

利用粉碎穀殼育苗之研究

梁連勝 陳萬福 黃杉茋

摘  要

粉碎穀殼經篩除小粒碎米後,以16∼24目粉碎度者供育苗最經濟並可減緩醱酵速度。本育苗技術的種子預措工作與土壤育苗法相同,唯催芽程度以芽長2mm最好。使用穀殼量為每箱350∼450公克;為促進秧苗生育,育苗時在播種前每箱噴洒600c.c.稀肥料溶液以代替清水(一期作每100公升水加硫酸錏800∼1400公克,氯化鉀400公克;二期作為硫酸錏250∼500公克,氯化鉀200公克,並充分攪拌。)播種後每箱再噴400c.c.清水(或立枯靈藥液)。以本法育苗時需注意堆積、綠化時因穀殼醱酵所產生之高溫及苗床水分濃度不正常之升高,以免抑制發芽及秧苗根群發育。育苗時因穀殼浸漬在水中,極不利好氣性水稻病害孢子之生存,無穀殼帶菌傳染之虞;但必需使用無菌已消毒之稻種。以本法育苗其床材成本比土壤育苗法每箱兩期平均計可節省0.7元;全省目前水稻機械插植用秧苗若改用本法育苗時,則在育苗材料上,全年可節省新台幣3538萬元。


Research on How to Raise the Seedlings on the Ground Rice Hull-bed

L. S. Liang, W. F. Chen, S. C. Huang

Summary

As a result of promoting the rice cultivation mechanizing, the rice transplanter becomes a very useful machine for planting in Taiwan.  Over all the operations of planting, the first thing we must consider is to prepare the seedlings.  The seedling is usually nursed by soil bed.  Before prepare the seed bed, it must collect the bed soil in advance.  The collecting of soil is always restrained by the soil quality, organic matter contains, pH value and the environmental conditions.  If using soul bed for nursing, there is one thing more bothering the farmers is the Fusarium wilt of seedlings.  The soil consuming amounts to 168000 tons per year under the 27% mechanizing of planting in Taiwan now.  As the planting operation mechanizing step by step, the bed soil supply and consuming will be the greatest trouble for our farmers.  For this we should find a new bed material, cheap and plentiful, which can substitute the soil.  So we have made searching for how to use the rice hull to nurse the seedlings.  As a result of this study we find the ground rice hull is the best material for nursing.

The technique of raising seedling by ground rice hull bed has been established by experiments.  Before planting, the seed processing procedure is the same as traditional, each case must be uniformly spread on 400 gram ground hull then spraying 600 c.c. dilute solution of fertilizer (use 0.75% Ammonium-Sulphate and 0.3% Potassium for 1st crop; 0.4% Ammonium-Sulphate and 0.15% Potassium for 2nd crop.).  After seedling, it must spray 400 c.c. water/Fusarium wilt control medicine dilutes solution for promoting the sprout of seed; at last cover the seed uniformly by 600 gram soil.  During the pile and harden time, it is important to take care of the unreasonable temperature rise which induced by the fermentation of hulls that will cause the inhibition of sprouting.

According to the statistical analysis on the results of searching for Bakanae control, it indicates that, in spite of the Bakanae is inoculated to the hull or not, the hull bed will not cause the Bakanae occur on the seedling unless the seed is inoculated with germs and without perfect sterilization.  During the raising time the hull is soaked in water, it is the worst environment for the rice diseases such as Bakanae, rice blast, Fusarium wilt etc.  The above diseases will not easy to occur.  In other words, the rice hull bed will not cause the rice diseases.  In conclusion, the hull bed seedlings is as strong as the traditional, it will not influence the yield.  We can get the rice hull re-used and save the nursery cost about 35.38 millions.



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